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WORLD-HISTORY-TIMELINE

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PICTURES IN TIME (PHOTOGRAPHY HISTORY)
TIME MAGAZINE (100 PICTURES)

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World History

The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian dates from January 1, 1401 (MCDI) to December 31, 1500 (MD).

In Europe, the 15th century includes parts of the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the “European miracle” of the following centuries. The architectural perspective, and the modern fields which are known today as banking and accounting were founded in Italy.

Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today’s Turkey), fell to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages.[1] This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg‘s invention of the mechanical movable type began the printing press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance.[2][3] The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion,[4] ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France to Christian rulers.

The search for the wealth and prosperity of India’s Bengal Sultanate[5] led to the colonization of the Americas by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the Portuguese voyages by Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires.

The Hundred Years’ War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict resulted in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts ended with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.

In Asia, the Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty was founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty‘s territory reached its pinnacle.

In Africa, the spread of Islam lead to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century, leaving only Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast Mali Empire teetered on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire.

In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reached the peak of their influence, but the European colonization of the Americas changed the course of modern history.

Filippo Brunelleschi, regarded as one of the greatest engineers and architects of all time.

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years’ War.

 

1401-1409

1410s

1420s

The renaissance king Matthias Corvinus of Hungary. His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era.

1430s

1440s

Depiction of Skanderbeg, who led the Albanian resistance against the Ottoman Empire

1450s

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453

Detail of The Emperor’s Approach showing the Xuande Emperor‘s royal carriage. Ming Dynasty of China.

King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

1460s

The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.

The Siege of Rhodes (1480).

Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

1470s

1480s

1490-1500

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

List of 15th century inventions

 

1601–1650

Jan Pieterszoon Coen (8 January 1587 – 21 September 1629), the founder of Batavia, was an officer of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.

1651–1700

French invasion of the Netherlands, which Louis XIV initiated in 1672, starting the Franco-Dutch War

The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.

1701–1750

Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700

The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power.

Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah with the Persian invader Nader Shah.

The extinction of the Scottish clan system came with the defeat of the clansmen at the Battle of Culloden in 1746.[17]

1751–1800

Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

The Chinese Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, completed in 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.

Literary and philosophical achievements

Musical works

1800s

The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology.

1810s

1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.

The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

1820s

1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that depopulated large areas of southern Africa.

1830s

The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.

1840s

1850s

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal.

1860s

Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[6]

David Livingstone, Scottish explorer and missionary in Africa.

From 1865–1870 Paraguay lost more than half of its population in the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.

Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.

1870s

1880s

First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company.

Miners and prospectors ascend the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.

Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890

1890s

1900

A Florida Journalist, Photographer, and Art Director with an eclectic client list of individuals and organizations with musical, visual, educational, and editorial interests.

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