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From The Beginning
A World Of Space & Time
January 1, 1401 — December 31, 1500
— da e v .
— 1492 Christopher Columbus
Discovers The New World.
— n linda zacks .
A is for everything
— the/written/ word/the/printing/ press
— stargazers/seeing/the/light/shadow/dimension/ c o l o r
the/ empty/ rectangle/shapes/ symbols/circles/square/triangle/logos
Sir Isaac Newton (1705)
the art of time
At the beginning of recorded time (History), In the 15th century includes parts of the Europe, the Late Middle Ages, Early , and the Renaissance early modern period. Many technological, social and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the “ European miracle” of the following centuries. The , and the modern fields which are known today as architectural perspective banking and accounting were founded in Italy. Constantinople, known as the Capital of the World and the Capital of the Byzantine Empire (today’s Turkey), fell to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages. This led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while ‘s invention of the mechanical Johannes Gutenberg movable type began the . These two events played key roles in the development of the printing press Renaissance. The Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades (the so-called Western Schism), until the Council of Constance. The division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus) became dissolved through the Christian Reconquista, followed by the forced conversions and the Muslim rebellion, ending over seven centuries of Islamic rule and returning Spain, Portugal and Southern France to Christian rulers. The search for the wealth and prosperity of India’s Bengal Sultanate led to the colonization of the by Americas in 1492 and the Christopher Columbus by Portuguese voyages Vasco da Gama, which linked Europe with the Indian subcontinent, ushering the period of Iberian empires. The Hundred Years’ War ended with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict resulted in the , a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England. The conflicts ended with the defeat of Wars of the Roses Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the later part of the century.
— CONTACT / VOYAGER
In , the Asia Timurid Empire collapsed, and the Afghan Pashtun Lodi dynasty was founded under the Delhi Sultanate. Under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the and commanded Forbidden City Zheng He to , the explore the world overseas ‘s territory reached its pinnacle. Ming Dynasty
In , the Africa spread of Islam lead to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of , by the end of the century, leaving only Nubia Alodia (which was to collapse in 1504). The formerly vast teetered on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Mali Empire Songhai Empire.
In the , both the Americas and the Inca Empire reached the peak of their influence, but the Aztec Empire European changed the course of modern history. colonization of the Americas
, a Joan of Arc French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the . Hundred Years’ War
— 9/11 —
In The Post-Apocalyptic Area
“Flying” b/ Living Colour
In the days immediately following 911, Vernon wrote this song, painting a vivid picture of the day as he remembered it being burned into his mind.
— French Television
— The first trailer (with the Twin Towers) was withdrawn after 911.
“Release The Pressure” (December 28, 2001)
— Living Colour @ The (Orlando) House Of Blues
LIVING COLOUR 3 •
b/ Ani DiFranco So Much Shouting, So Much Laughter (2003)
• BACK TO [LC] THE BEGINNING
1401: Dilawar establishes the Khan Malwa Sultanate in present-day central India.
1402: Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in the capture of Bayezid I by Timur.
1402: Sultanate of Malacca founded by Parameswara.
1402: The settlement of the signals the beginning of the Canary Islands . Spanish Empire
1403– 1413: Ottoman Interregnum, a civil war between the four sons of Bayezid I.
1403: The Yongle Emperor moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing.
1404– 1406: Regreg War, Majapahit civil war of secession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi.
1405: The Sultanate of Sulu is established by Sharif ul-Hāshim.
1405– 1433: During the Ming treasure voyages, Admiral Zheng He of China sails through the to Malacca, India, Ceylon, Persia, Arabia, and East Africa to spread China’s influence and sovereignty. Indian Ocean
1405– 1407: The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Palembang, Malacca, Aru, Samudera and Lambri. (to 1433)
1408: The last recorded event to occur in the Norse settlements of was a wedding in Greenland Hvalsey in the Eastern Settlement in 1408.
1410: The Battle of Grunwald is the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights.
1410– 1413: Foundation of St Andrews University in Scotland.
1410– 1415: The last Welsh war of independence, led by Owain Glyndŵr.
1414: Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan, takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty.
1415: Henry the Navigator leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire.
1415: Battle of Agincourt fought between the and Kingdom of England . France
1415: Jan Hus is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance.
1417: A large goodwill mission led by three kings of Sulu, the Eastern King Paduka Pahala, the Western king Maharaja Kolamating and Cave king Paduka Prabhu as well as 340 members of their delegation, in what is now the southern Philippines, ploughed through the Pacific Ocean to China to pay tribute to the Yongle emperor of the Ming Dynasty.
1417: The East king of Sulu, Paduka Pahala, on their way home, suddenly died in Dezhou, a city in east China’s Shandong province. The Yongle Emperor Zhu Di commissioned artisans to build a tomb for the king.
1419– 1433: The Hussite Wars in Bohemia.
1440: Eton College founded by Henry VI.
1440s: The Golden Horde breaks up into the Siberia Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, and the Great Horde.
1440– 1469: Under Moctezuma I, the Aztecs become the dominant power in . Mesoamerica
1440: Oba Ewuare comes to power in the West African city of Benin, and turns it into an empire.
1441: Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter, dies.
1441: Portuguese navigators cruise West Africa and reestablish the European slave trade with a shipment of sent directly from African slaves Africa to . Portugal
1441: A civil war between the Tutul Xiues and Cocom breaks out in the League of Mayapan. As a consequence, the league begins to disintegrate.
1442: defines Leonardo Bruni and Modern times. Middle Ages
1443: Abdur Razzaq visits India.
1443: King Sejong the Great publishes the hangul, the native phonetic alphabet system for the Korean language.
1444: The Albanian league is established in Lezha, Skanderbeg is elected leader. A war begins against the Ottoman Empire. An Albanian state is set up and lasts until 1479.
1444: under Ottoman Empire Sultan Murad II defeats the and Polish armies under Hungarian Władysław III of Poland and János Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna.
1445: The Kazan Khanate defeats the Grand Duchy of at the Moscow Battle of Suzdal.
1446: Mallikarjuna Raya succeeds his father Deva Raya II as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire.
1447: Wijaya Parakrama Wardhana, succeeds Suhita as ruler of Majapahit.
1449: Saint Srimanta Sankardeva was born.
1449: Esen Tayisi leads an Oirat Mongol invasion of China which culminate in the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor at Battle of Tumu Fortress.
The seventeen Kuchkabals of Yucatán after The League of Mayapan in 1461.
1492: The death of Sunni Ali Ber left a leadership void in the Songhai Empire, and his son was soon dethroned by Mamadou Toure who ascended the throne in 1493 under the name Askia (meaning “general”) Muhammad. Askia Muhammad made Songhai the largest empire in the history of West Africa. The empire went into decline, however, after 1528, when the now-blind Askia Muhammad was dethroned by his son, Askia Musa.
1492: Boabdil‘s surrender of Granada marks the end of the Spanish Reconquista and Al-Andalus.
1492: Ferdinand and Isabella sign the Alhambra Decree, expelling all Jews from Spain unless they convert to Catholicism; 40,000–200,000 leave.
1492: landed in the Americas from (Portugal) Christopher Columbus Spain.
1494: Spain and Portugal sign the Treaty of Tordesillas and agree to divide the World outside of Europe between themselves.
1494–1559: The lead to the downfall of the Italian Wars Italian city-states.
1497– 1499: ‘s first voyage from Vasco da Gama Europe to India and back.
1499: Ottoman fleet defeats at the Venetians Battle of Zonchio.
1499: University “Alcalá de Henares” in Madrid, Spain is built.
1499: ‘s Michelangelo Pietà in St. Peter’s Basilica is made in Rome
1500: Islam becomes the dominant religion across the Indonesian archipelago.
1500: Around late 15th century Bujangga Manik manuscript was composed, tell the story of Jaya Pakuan Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu hermit journeys throughout Java and Bali.
1500: Charles of Ghent (future Lord of the Netherlands, King of Spain, Archduke of Austria, and Holy Roman Emperor) was born.
1500: Guru Nanak begins the spreading of Sikhism, the fifth-largest religion in the world.
1500: Spanish navigator Vicente Yáñez Pinzón encounters but is prevented from claiming it by the Brazil Treaty of Tordesillas.
1500: navigator Portuguese Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal.
1500: The Ottoman fleet of Kemal Reis defeats the at the Venetians Second Battle of Lepanto.
THE MIRACLE OF GLASS
The Impact Of The Lens
Inventions, Discoveries, Introductions
Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci
List of 15th century inventions
1501: Michelangelo returns to his native Florence to begin work on the statue . David
1501: Safavid dynasty reunifies Iran and rules over it until 1736. Safavids adopt a Shia branch of Islam. 
1501: First Battle of Cannanore between the Third Portuguese Armada and Kingdom of Cochin under João da Nova and Zamorin of Kozhikode‘s navy marks the beginning of Portuguese conflicts in the Indian Ocean.
1502: First reported African slaves in the New World
1502: The Crimean Khanate sacks Sarai in the Golden Horde, ending its existence.
1503: Spain defeats France at the Battle of Cerignola. Considered to be the first battle in history won by gunpowder small arms.
1503: Leonardo da Vinci begins painting the and completes it three years later. Mona Lisa
1503: Nostradamus is born on either December 14 or December 21.
1504: A period of drought, with famine in all of Spain.
1504: Death of Isabella I of Castile; Joanna of Castile becomes the Queen.
1504: Foundation of the Sultanate of Sennar by Amara Dunqas, in what is modern Sudan
1505: Zhengde Emperor ascends the throne of Ming Dynasty.
1505: Martin Luther enters St. Augustine’s Monastery at Erfurt, Germany, on 17 July and begins his journey to instigating the Reformation.
1505: Sultan Trenggono builds the first Muslim kingdom in Java, called Demak, in Indonesia. Many other small kingdoms were established in other islands to fight against Portuguese. Each kingdom introduced local language as a way of communication and unity.
1506: Leonardo da Vinci completes the . Mona Lisa
1506: King Afonso I of Kongo wins the battle of Mbanza Kongo, resulting in Catholicism becoming Kongo’s state religion.
1506: At least two thousand converted Jews are massacred in a Lisbon riot, Portugal.
1506: Christopher Columbus dies in Valladolid, Spain.
1506: Poland is invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanate.
1507: The first recorded epidemic of smallpox in the New World on the island of Hispaniola. It devastates the native Taíno population. 
1507: Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Hormuz and Muscat, among other bases in the Persian Gulf, taking control of the region at the entrance of the Gulf.
1508: The Christian-Islamic power struggle in Europe and West Asia spills over into the Indian Ocean as Battle of Chaul during the Portuguese-Mamluk War
1508– 1512: Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel ceiling.
1509: The defeat of joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, and the Zamorin of Calicut with support of the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire in Battle of Diu marks the beginning of Portuguese dominance of the Spice trade and the Indian Ocean.
1509: The Portuguese king sends Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, the eastern terminus of Asian trade. After initially receiving Sequeira, Sultan Mahmud Shah captures and/or kills several of his men and attempts an assault on the four Portuguese ships, which escape. The  Javanese fleet is also destroyed in Malacca.
1509: Krishnadevaraya ascends the throne of Vijayanagara Empire.
1509– 10: The ‘great plague‘ in various parts of Tudor England. 
1510: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Goa in India.
1511: Afonso de Albuquerque of Portugal conquers Malacca, the capital of the Sultanate of Malacca in present-day Malaysia.
1512: Copernicus writes , and proclaims the sun the center of the solar system. Commentariolus
1512: The southern part (historical core) of the Kingdom of Navarre is invaded by Castile and Aragon.
1526: Qutb Shahi dynasty, founded by Quli Qutb Mulk, rules Golconda Sultanate until 1687.
1512: The first Portuguese exploratory expedition was sent eastward from Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) to search for the ‘ Spice Islands‘ ( Maluku) led by Francisco Serrão. Serrão is shipwrecked but struggles on to Hitu (northern Ambon) and wins the favour of the local rulers. 
1513: Machiavelli writes , a treatise about political philosophy The Prince
1513: The Portuguese mariner Jorge Álvares lands at Macau, China, during the Ming Dynasty.
1513: Henry VIII defeats the French at the Battle of the Spurs.
1513: The Battle of Flodden Field in which invading Scots are defeated by Henry VIII‘s forces.
1513: Sultan Selim I (“The Grim”) orders the massacre of Shia Muslims in Anatolia (present-day Turkey).
1513: Vasco Núñez de Balboa, in service of Spain arrives at the Pacific Ocean (which he called Mar del Sur) across the Isthmus of Panama. He was the first European to do so.
1514: The Battle of Orsha halts Muscovy‘s expansion into Eastern Europe.
1514: Dózsa rebellion (peasant revolt) in Hungary.
1514: The Battle of Chaldiran, the Ottoman Empire gains decisive victory against Safavid dynasty.
1515: The Ottoman Empire wrests Eastern Anatolia from the Safavids after the Battle of Chaldiran.
1515: The Ottomans conquers the last beyliks of Anatolia, the Dulkadirs and the Ramadanids.
1516– 1517: The Ottomans defeat the Mamluks and gain control of Egypt, Arabia, and the Levant.
1517: The Sweating sickness epidemic in Tudor England. 
1517: The Reformation begins when Martin Luther posts his Ninety-five Theses in Saxony.
1518: Mir Chakar Khan Rind leaves Baluchistan and settles in Punjab.
1518: Leo Africanus, also known as al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, an Andalusian Berber diplomat who is best known for his book (Description of Africa), is captured by Spanish pirates; he is taken to Rome and presented to Descrittione dell’Africa Pope Leo X.
1518: The dancing plague of 1518 begins in Strasbourg, lasting for about one month.
1519: Leonardo da Vinci dies of natural causes on May 2.
1519: Wang Yangming, the Chinese philosopher and governor of Jiangxi province, describes his intent to use the firepower of the fo-lang-ji, a breech-loading Portuguese culverin, in order to suppress the rebellion of Prince Zhu Chenhao.
1519: Barbary pirates led by Hayreddin Barbarossa, a Turk appointed to ruling position in Algiers by the Ottoman Empire, raid Provence and Toulon in southern France.
1519: Charles I of Austria, Spain, and the Low Countries becomes Emperor of Holy Roman Empire as Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (ruled until 1556).
1519– 1522: Spanish expedition commanded by Magellan and Elcano are the first to Circumnavigate the Earth.
1519– 1521: Hernán Cortés leads the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
1520– 1566: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire.
1520: The first European diplomatic mission to Ethiopia, sent by the Portuguese, arrives at Massawa 9 April, and reaches the imperial encampment of Emperor Dawit II in Shewa 9 October.
1520: Vijayanagara Empire forces under Krishnadevaraya defeat the Adil Shahi under at the Battle of Raichur
1520: Sultan Ali Mughayat Shah of Aceh begins an expansionist campaign capturing Daya on the west Sumatran coast (in present-day Indonesia), and the pepper and gold producing lands on the east coast.
1520: The Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of Solor (in present-day Indonesia) as a transit harbour between Maluku and Malacca.
1521: Belgrade (in present-day Serbia) is captured by the Ottoman Empire.
1521: After building fortifications at Tuen Mun, the Portuguese attempt to invade Ming Dynasty China, but are expelled by Chinese naval forces.
1521: Philippines encountered by Ferdinand Magellan. He was later killed in the Battle of Mactan in central Philippines in the same year.
1521: Jiajing Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, China.
1521: November, Ferdinand Magellan‘s expedition reaches Maluku (in present-day Indonesia) and after trade with Ternate returns to Europe with a load of cloves.
1521: Pati Unus leads the invasion of Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) against the Portuguese occupation. Pati Unus was killed in this battle, and was succeeded by his brother, sultan Trenggana.
1522: Rhodes falls to the Ottomans of Suleiman the Magnificent.
1522: The Portuguese ally themselves with the rulers of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) and begin construction of a fort. 
1522: August, Luso-Sundanese Treaty signed between Portugal and Sunda Kingdom granted Portuguese permit to build fortress in Sunda Kelapa.
1523: Sweden gains independence from the Kalmar Union.
1523: The Cacao bean is introduced to Spain by Hernán Cortés
1524– 1525: German Peasants’ War in the Holy Roman Empire.
1524 – Giovanni da Verrazzano is the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South Carolina and Newfoundland.
1524 – Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty, dies and Tahmasp I becomes king.
1525: Timurid Empire forces under Babur defeat the Lodi dynasty at the First Battle of Panipat, end of the Delhi Sultanate.
1525: German and Spanish forces defeat France at the Battle of Pavia, Francis I of France is captured.
1526: The Ottomans defeat the Kingdom of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács.
1526: Mughal Empire, founded by Babur, dominates India until 1857.
1527: Sack of Rome with Pope Clement VII escaping and the Swiss Guards defending the Vatican being killed. The sack of the city of Rome considered the end of the Italian Renaissance.
1527: Protestant Reformation begins in Sweden.
1527: The last ruler of Majapahit falls from power. This state (located in present-day Indonesia) was finally extinguished at the hands of the Demak. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali; however, the power and the seat of government transferred to Demak under the leadership of Pangeran, later Sultan Fatah.
1527: June 22, The Javanese Prince Fatahillah of the Cirebon Sultanate successfully defeated the Portuguese armed forces at the site of the Sunda Kelapa Harbor. The city was then renamed Jayakarta, meaning “a glorious victory.” This eventful day came to be acknowledged as Jakarta’s Founding Anniversary.
1527: Mughal Empire forces defeat the Rajput led by Rana Sanga of Mewar at the Battle of Khanwa
1529: The Austrians defeat the Ottoman Empire at the siege of Vienna.
1529: Treaty of Zaragoza defined the antimeridian of Tordesillas attributing the Moluccas to Portugal and Philippines to Spain.
1529: Imam Ahmad Gragn defeats the Ethiopian Emperor Dawit II in the Battle of Shimbra Kure, the opening clash of the Ethiopian–Adal War.
1531– 32: The Church of England breaks away from the Catholic Church and recognizes King Henry VIII as the head of the Church.
1531: The Inca Civil War is fought between the two brothers, Atahualpa and Huáscar.
1532: Francisco Pizarro leads the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire.
1532: Foundation of São Vicente, the first permanent Portuguese settlement in the Americas.
1533: Anne Boleyn becomes Queen of England.
1533: Elizabeth Tudor is born.
1534: Jacques Cartier claims Canada for France.
1534: The Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Safavids.
1534: Affair of the Placards – Francis becomes more active in repression of French Protestants.
1535: The Münster Rebellion, an attempt of radical, millennialist, Anabaptists to establish a theocracy, ends in bloodshed.
1535: The Portuguese in Ternate depose Sultan Tabariji (or Tabarija) and send him to Portuguese Goa where he converts to Christianity and bequeaths his Portuguese godfather Jordao de Freitas the island of Ambon. Hairun becomes the next sultan.
1536: Katherine of Aragon dies in Kimbolton Castle, in England.
1536: In England, Anne Boleyn is beheaded for adultery and treason.
1536: Establishment of the Inquisition in Portugal.
1536: Foundation of Buenos Aires (in present-day Argentina) by Pedro de Mendoza.
1537: The Portuguese establish Recife in Pernambuco, north-east of Brazil.
1537: William Tyndale‘s partial translation of the Bible into English is published, which would eventually be incorporated into the King James Bible.
1538: Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada founds Bogotá.
1538: Spanish– Venetian fleet is defeated by the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Preveza.
1539: Hernando de Soto explores inland North America.
1540: The Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits, is founded by Ignatius of Loyola and six companions with the approval of Pope Paul III.
1540: Sher Shah Suri founds the Suri dynasty in South Asia, an ethnic Pashtun ( Pathan) of the house of Sur, who supplanted the Mughal dynasty as rulers of North India during the reign of the relatively ineffectual second Mughal emperor Humayun. Sher Shah Suri decisively defeats Humayun in the Battle of Bilgram (May 17, 1540).
1541: Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile.
1541: An Algerian military campaign by Charles V of Spain ( Habsburg) is unsuccessful.
1541: Amazon River is encountered and explored by Francisco de Orellana.
1541: Capture of Buda and the absorption of the major part of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire.
1541: Sahib I Giray of Crimea invades Russia.
1542: War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII is allied with the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied with the French.
1542: Akbar The Great is born in the Rajput Umarkot Fort
1542: Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the island of Samar and Leyte honoring Las Islas Filipinas Philip II of Spain and became the official name of the archipelago.
1543: Ethiopian/ Portuguese troops decisively defeat the Adal-Ottoman Muslim army led by Imam Ahmad Gragn at the Battle of Wayna Daga; Imam Ahmad Gragn is killed at this battle.
1543: Copernicus publishes his theory that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun
1543: The Nanban trade period begins after Portuguese traders make contact with Japan.
1544: The French defeat an Imperial– Spanish army at the Battle of Ceresole.
1544: Battle of the Shirts in Scotland. The Frasers and Macdonalds of Clan Ranald fight over a disputed chiefship; reportedly, 5 Frasers and 8 Macdonalds survive.
1545: Songhai forces sack the Malian capital of Niani
1545: The Council of Trent meets for the first time in Trent (in northern Italy).
1546: Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.
1546: Francis Xavier works among the peoples of Ambon, Ternate and Morotai (Moro) laying the foundations for a permanent mission. (to 1547)
1547: Henry VIII dies in the Palace of Whitehall on 28 January at the age of 55.
1547: Francis I dies in the Château de Rambouillet on 31 March at the age of 52.
1547: Edward VI becomes King of England and Ireland on 28 January and is crowned on 20 February at the age of 9.
1547: Emperor Charles V decisively dismantles the Schmalkaldic League at the Battle of Mühlberg.
1547: Grand Prince Ivan the Terrible is crowned tsar of (All) Russia, thenceforth becoming the first Russian tsar.
1548: Battle of Uedahara: Firearms are used for the first time on the battlefield in Japan, and Takeda Shingen is defeated by Murakami Yoshikiyo.
1548: Askia Daoud, who reigned from 1548 to 1583, establishes public libraries in Timbuktu (in present-day Mali).
1548: The Ming Dynasty government of China issues a decree banning all foreign trade and closes down all seaports along the coast; these Hai jin laws came during the Wokou wars with Japanese pirates.
1549: Tomé de Sousa establishes Salvador in Bahia, north-east of Brazil.
1549: Arya Penangsang with the support of his teacher, Sunan Kudus, avenges the death of Raden Kikin by sending an envoy named Rangkud to kill Sunan Prawoto by Keris Kyai Satan Kober (in present-day Indonesia).
1550: The architect Mimar Sinan builds the Süleymaniye Mosque in . Istanbul
1550: Mongols led by Altan Khan invade China and besiege Beijing.
1550– 1551: Valladolid debate concerning the human rights of the Indigenous people of the Americas.
1551: Fifth outbreak of sweating sickness in England. John Caius of Shrewsbury writes the first full contemporary account of the symptoms of the disease.
1551: North African enslave the entire population of the pirates Maltese island Gozo, between 5,000 and 6,000, sending them to Libya.
1552: Russia conquers the Khanate of Kazan in central Asia.
1552: Jesuit China Mission, Francis Xavier dies.
1553: Mary Tudor becomes the first queen regnant of England and restores the Church of England under Papal authority.
1553: The Portuguese found a settlement at Macau.
1554: Missionaries José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nóbrega establishes São Paulo, southeast Brazil.
1554: Princess Elizabeth is imprisoned in the Tower of London upon the orders of Mary I for suspicion of being involved in the Wyatt rebellion.
1555: The Muscovy Company is the first major English joint stock trading company.
1556: Publication in Venice of Delle Navigiationi et Viaggi (terzo volume) by Giovanni Battista Ramusio, secretary of Council of Ten, with plan La Terra de Hochelaga, an illustration of the Hochelaga.
1556: The Shaanxi earthquake in China is history’s deadliest known earthquake during the Ming dynasty.
1556: Georgius Agricola, the “Father of Mineralogy“, publishes his . De re metallica
1556: Akbar defeats Hemu at the Second battle of Panipat.
1556: Russia conquers the Astrakhan Khanate.
1556– 1605: During his reign, Akbar expands the Mughal Empire in a series of conquests (in the Indian subcontinent).
1556: Mir Chakar Khan Rind captures Delhi with Humayun.
1556: Pomponio Algerio, radical theologian, is executed by boiling in oil as part of the Roman inquisition.
1557: Habsburg Spain declares bankruptcy. Philip II of Spain had to declare four state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1575 and 1596.
1557: The Portuguese settle in Macau (on the western side of the Pearl River Delta across from present-day Hong Kong).
1557: The Ottomans capture Massawa, all but isolating Ethiopia from the rest of the world.
1558: Elizabeth Tudor becomes Queen Elizabeth I at age 25.
1558– 1603: The Elizabethan era is considered the height of the English Renaissance.
1558– 1583: Livonian War between Poland, Grand Principality of Lithuania, Sweden, Denmark and Russia.
1558: After 200 years, the Kingdom of England loses Calais to France.
1559: With the Peace of Cateau Cambrésis, the Italian Wars conclude.
1559: Sultan Hairun of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) protests the Portuguese’s Christianisation activities in his lands. Hostilities between Ternate and the Portuguese.
1560: Ottoman navy defeats the Spanish fleet at the Battle of Djerba.
1560: Elizabeth Bathory is born in Nyirbator, Hungary.
1560: By winning the Battle of Okehazama, Oda Nobunaga becomes one of the pre-eminent warlords of Japan.
1560: Jeanne d’Albret declares Calvinism the official religion of Navarre.
1560: Lazarus Church, Macau
1561: Sir Francis Bacon is born in London.
1561: The fourth battle of Kawanakajima between the Uesugi and Takeda at Hachimanbara takes place.
1561: Guido de Bres draws up the Belgic Confession of Protestant faith.
1562: Mughal emperor Akbar reconciles the Muslim and Hindu factions by marrying into the powerful Rajput Hindu caste.
1562– 98: French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots.
1562: Massacre of Wassy and Battle of Dreux in the French Wars of Religion.
1562: Portuguese Dominican priests build a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population. 
1563: Plague outbreak claimed 80,000 people in Elizabethan England. In London alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease.
1564: Galileo Galilei born on February 15
1564: William Shakespeare baptized 26 April
1565: Deccan sultanates defeat the Vijayanagara Empireat the Battle of Talikota.
1565: Mir Chakar Khan Rind dies at aged 97.
1565: Estácio de Sá establishes Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
1565: The Hospitallers, a Crusading Order, defeat the Ottoman Empire at the siege of Malta (1565).
1565: Miguel López de Legazpi establishes in Cebu the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines starting a period of Spanish colonization that would last over three hundred years.
1565: Spanish navigator Andres de Urdaneta discovers the maritime route from Asia to the Americas across the Pacific Ocean, also known as the tornaviaje.
1565: Royal Exchange is founded by Thomas Gresham.
1566: Suleiman the Magnificent, ruler of the Ottoman Empire, dies on September 7, during the battle of Szigetvar.
1566– 1648: Eighty Years’ War between Spain and the Netherlands.
1566: Da le Balle Contrade d’Oriente, composed by Cipriano de Rore.
1567: After 45 years’ reign, Jiajing Emperor died in the Forbidden City, Longqing Emperor ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty.
1567: , is imprisoned by Mary, Queen of Scots Elizabeth I.
1568: The Transylvanian Diet, under the patronage of the prince John Sigismund Zápolya, the former king of Hungary, inspired by the teachings of Ferenc Dávid, the founder of the Unitarian Church of Transylvania, promulgates the Edict of Torda, the first law of freedom of religion and of conscience in the World.
1568– 1571: Morisco Revolt in Spain.
1568– 1600: The Azuchi-Momoyama period in Japan.
1568: Hadiwijaya sent his adopted son and son in-law Sutawijaya, who would later become the first ruler of the Mataram dynasty of Indonesia, to kill Arya Penangsang.
1569: Rising of the North in England.
1569: Mercator 1569 world map published by Gerardus Mercator.
1569: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is created with the Union of Lublin which lasts until 1795.
1569: Peace treaty signed by Sultan Hairun of Ternate and Governor Lopez De Mesquita of Portugal.
1570: , tsar of Russia, orders the massacre of inhabitants of Ivan the Terrible Novgorod.
1570: Pope Pius V issues , a papal bull excommunicating all who obeyed Regnans in Excelsis Elizabeth I and calling on all Catholics to rebel against her.
1570: Sultan Hairun of Ternate (in present-day Indonesia) is killed by the Portuguese.  Babullah becomes the next Sultan.
1571: completes the Pope Pius V Holy League as a united front against the Ottoman Turks.
1571: The Spanish-led Holy League navy destroys the navy at the Ottoman Empire Battle of Lepanto.
1571: Crimean Tatars attack and sack Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.
1571: American Indians kill Spanish missionaries in what would later be Jamestown, Virginia.
1571: Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi establishes Manila, Philippines as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.
1572: Brielle is taken from Habsburg Spain by Protestant Watergeuzen in the Capture of Brielle, in the Eighty Years’ War.
1572: Spanish conquistadores apprehend the last Inca leader Tupak Amaru at Vilcabamba, Peru, and execute him in Cuzco.
1572: Jeanne d’Albret dies aged 43 and is succeeded by Henry of Navarre.
1572: Catherine de’ Medici instigates the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre which takes the lives of Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny and thousands of Huguenots. The violence spreads from Paris to other cities and the countryside.
1572: First edition of the epic The Lusiads of Luís Vaz de Camões, three years after the author returned from the East.
1572: The 9 years old Taizi, Zhu Yijun ascended the throne of Ming Dynasty, known as Wanli Emperor.
1573: After heavy losses on both sides the siege of Haarlem ends in a Spanish victory.
1574: in the Eighty Years’ War the capital of Zeeland, Middelburg declares for the Protestants.
1574: After a siege of 4 months the siege of Leiden ends in a comprehensive Dutch rebel victory.
1575: Oda Nobunaga finally captures Nagashima fortress.
1575: Following a five-year war, the Ternateans under Sultan Babullah defeated the Portuguese.
1576: Tahmasp I, Safavid shah, dies.
1576: The Battle of Haldighati is fought between the ruler of Mewar, Maharana Pratap and the Mughal Empire‘s forces under Emperor Akbar led by Raja Man Singh.
1576: Sack of Antwerp by badly paid Spanish soldiers.
1577– 80: Francis Drake circles the world.
1577: Ki Ageng Pemanahan built his palace in Pasargede or Kotagede.
1578: King Sebastian of Portugal is killed at the Battle of Alcazarquivir.
1578: The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon. 
1578: Sonam Gyatso is conferred the title of Dalai Lama by Tumed Mongol ruler, Altan Khan. Recognised as the reincarnation of two previous Lamas, Sonam Gyatso becomes the third Dalai Lama in the lineage. 
1579: The Union of Utrecht unifies the northern Netherlands, a foundation for the later Dutch Republic.
1579: The Union of Arras unifies the southern Netherlands, a foundation for the later states of the Spanish Netherlands, the Austrian Netherlands and Belgium.
1579: The British navigator Sir Francis Drake passes through Maluku and transit in Ternate on his circumnavigation of the world. The Portuguese establish a fort on Tidore but the main centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku becomes Ambon.
1580: Drake‘s royal reception after his attacks on Spanish possessions influences Philip II of Spain to build up the Spanish Armada. English ships in Spanish harbours are impounded.
1580: Spain unifies with Portugal under Philip II. The struggle for the throne of Portugal ends the Portuguese Empire. The Spanish and Portuguese crowns are united for 60 years, i.e. until 1640.
1580– 1587: Nagasaki comes under control of the Jesuits.
1581: Dutch Act of Abjuration, declaring abjuring allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
1581: Bayinnaung dies at the age of 65.
1582: Oda Nobunaga commits seppuku during the Honnō-ji Incident coup by his general, Akechi Mitsuhide.
1582: Pope Gregory XIII issues the Gregorian calendar. The last day of the Julian calendar was Thursday, 4 October 1582 and this was followed by the first day of the Gregorian calendar, Friday, 15 October 1582
1582: Yermak Timofeyevich conquers the Siberia Khanate on behalf of the Stroganovs.
1583: Denmark builds the world’s first theme park, Bakken.
1583: Death of Sultan Babullah of Ternate.
1584– 1585: After the siege of Antwerp, many of its merchants flee to Amsterdam. According to Luc-Normand Tellier, “At its peak, between 1510 and 1557, Antwerp concentrated about 40% of the world trade…It is estimated that the port of Antwerp was earning the Spanish crown seven times more revenues than the Americas.”
1584: Ki Ageng Pemanahan died. Sultan Pajang raised Sutawijaya, son of Ki Ageng Pemanahan as the new ruler in Mataram, titled “Loring Ngabehi Market” (because of his home in the north of the market).
1585: Akbar annexes Kashmir and adds it to the Kabul Subah
1585: Colony at Roanoke founded in North America.
1585– 1604: The Anglo-Spanish War is fought on both sides of the Atlantic.
1587: Mary, Queen of Scots is executed by Elizabeth I.
1587: The reign of Abbas I marks the zenith of the Safavid dynasty.
1587: Troops that would invade Pajang Mataram Sultanate storm ravaged the eruption of Mount Merapi. Sutawijaya and his men survived.
1588: Mataram into the kingdom with Sutawijaya as Sultan, titled “Senapati Ingalaga Sayidin Panatagama” means the warlord and cleric Manager Religious Life.
1588: England repulses the Spanish Armada.
1589: Spain repulses the English Armada.
1589: Catherine de’ Medici dies at aged 69.
1590: Siege of Odawara: the Go-Hojo clan surrender to Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Japan is unified.
1591: Gazi Giray leads a huge Tatar expedition against Moscow.
1591: In Mali, Moroccan forces of the Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur led by Judar Pasha defeat the Songhai Empire at the Battle of Tondibi.
1592– 1593: John Stow reports 10,675 plague deaths in London, a city of approximately 200,000 people.
1592– 1598: Korea, with the help of Ming Dynasty China, repels two Japanese invasions.
1593– 1606: The Long War between the Habsburg monarchy and the Ottoman Turks.
1594: St. Paul’s College, Macau, founded by Alessandro Valignano.
1595: First Dutch expedition to Indonesia sets sail for the East Indies with two hundred and forty-nine men and sixty-four cannons led by Cornelis de Houtman. 
1596: Birth of René Descartes.
1596: June, de Houtman’s expedition reaches Banten the main pepper port of West Java where they clash with both the Portuguese and Indonesians. It then sails east along the north coast of Java losing twelve crew to a Javanese attack at Sidayu and killing a local ruler in Madura. 
1597: Romeo and Juliet is published
1597: Cornelis de Houtman’s expedition returns to the Netherlands with enough spices to make a considerable profit.
1598: The Edict of Nantes ends the French Wars of Religion.
1598: Abbas I moves Safavids capital from Qazvin to Isfahan in 1598.
1598– 1613: Russia descends into anarchy during the Time of Troubles.
1598: The Portuguese require an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising. (to 1599) 
1598: More Dutch fleets leave for Indonesia and most are profitable. 
1598: The province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México is established in Northern New Spain. The region would later become a territory of Mexico, the New Mexico Territory in the United States, and the US State of New Mexico.
1598: Death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, known as the unifier of Japan.
1599: The Mali Empire is defeated at the Battle of Jenné.
1599: The van Neck expedition returns to Europe. The expedition makes a 400 per cent profit. (to 1600) 
1599: March, Leaving Europe the previous year, a fleet of eight ships under Jacob van Neck was the first Dutch fleet to reach the ‘Spice Islands’ of Maluku. 
1600: Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome.
1600: Battle of Sekigahara in Japan. End of the Warring States period and beginning of the Edo period.
1600: The Portuguese win a major naval battle in the bay of Ambon. Later in the year, the Dutch join forces with the local Hituese in an anti-Portuguese alliance, in return for which the Dutch would have the sole right to purchase spices from Hitu. 
1600: Elizabeth I grants a charter to the British East India Company beginning the English advance in Asia.
1600: Michael the Brave unifies the three Romanian principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia and Translyvania after the Battle of Șelimbăr from 1599.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Related article: List of 16th century inventions.
1601: In the Battle of Kinsale, England defeats Irish and Spanish forces at the town of Kinsale, driving the Gaelic aristocracy out of Ireland and destroying the Gaelic clan system.
1601– 1603: The Russian famine of 1601–1603 kills perhaps one-third of Russia.
1602: Matteo Ricci produces the Map of the Myriad Countries of the World (坤輿萬國全圖, Kūnyú Wànguó Quántú), a world map that will be used throughout East Asia for centuries.
1602: The Dutch East India Company (VOC) is established by merging competing Dutch trading companies. Its success contributes to the  Dutch Golden Age.
1603: Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England.
1603: Tokugawa Ieyasu takes the title of , establishing the shōgun Tokugawa shogunate. This begins the Edo period, which will last until 1868.
1603: In Nagasaki, the Portuguese Jesuit missionary João Rodrigues publishes , the first dictionary of Japanese to a European language (Portuguese) Nippo Jisho
1605: The King of Gowa, a Makassarese kingdom in South Sulawesi, converts to Islam.
1605– 1627: The reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir after the death of emperor Akbar.
1606: The Long War between the Ottoman Empire and Austria is ended with the Peace of Zsitvatorok—Austria abandons Transylvania.
1606: Treaty of Vienna ends anti-Habsburg uprising in Royal Hungary.
1607: Flight of the Earls (the fleeing of most of the native Gaelic aristocracy) occurs from County Donegal in the west of Ulster in Ireland.
1607: Iskandar Muda becomes the Sultan of Aceh (r. 1607–1637). He will launch a series of naval conquests that will transform Aceh into a great power in the western Malay Archipelago.
1610: The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth army defeats combined Russian–Swedish forces at the Battle of Klushino and conquers Moscow.
1610: King Henry IV of France is assassinated by François Ravaillac.
1611: The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, the oldest existing university in Asia, established by the Dominican Order in Manila
1611: The first publication of the King James Bible.
1612: Cotswold Olympic Games, Robert Dover
1613: The Time of Troubles in Russia ends with the establishment of the House of Romanov, which rules until 1917.
1613– 1617: Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth is invaded by the Tatars dozens of times. 
1613: The Dutch East India Company is forced to evacuate Gresik because of the Mataram siege of neighboring Surabaya. The VOC enters into negotiations with Mataram and is allowed to set up a trading post in Jepara.
1614– 1615: The Siege of Osaka (last major threat to Tokugawa shogunate) ends.
1616: The last remaining Moriscos (Moors who had nominally converted to Christianity) in Spain are expelled.
1616: English poet and playwright William Shakespeare dies.
1618: The Defenestration of Prague.
1618: The Bohemian Revolt precipitates the Thirty Years’ War, which devastates Europe in the years 1618–48.
1618: The Manchus start invading China. Their conquest eventually topples the Ming dynasty.
1619: Dutch East India Company, English East India Company, and Sultanate of Banten all fighting over port city of Jayakarta. VOC forces storm the city and withstand a months-long siege by the combined English, Bantenese, and Jayakartan forces. They are relieved by Jan Pieterszoon Coen and a fleet of nineteen ships out of Ambon. Coen had burned Jepara and its EIC post along the way. The VOC levels the old city of Jayakarta and builds its new headquarters, Batavia, on top of it.
1620– 1621: Polish-Ottoman War over Moldavia.
1620: Bethlen Gabor allies with the Ottomans and an invasion of Moldavia takes place. The Polish suffer a disaster at Cecora on the River Prut.
1620: The Mayflower sets sail from Plymouth, England to what became Plymouth Colony in the New England region of North America.
1621: The Battle of Chocim: Poles and Cossacks under Jan Karol Chodkiewicz defeat the Ottomans.
1622: Jamestown massacre: Algonquian natives kill 347 English settlers outside Jamestown, Virginia (one-third of the colony’s population) and burn the Henricus settlement.
1624– 1642: As chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu centralises power in France.
1626: St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican completed.
1627: Aurochs go extinct.
1628— 1629: Sultan Agung of Mataram launches a failed campaign to conquer Dutch Batavia.
1629: Abbas I, the Safavids king, died.
1629: Cardinal Richelieu allies with Swedish Protestant forces in the Thirty Years’ War to counter Ferdinand II’s expansion.
1630 : Birth of Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj at Shivneri fort
1631: Mount Vesuvius erupts.
1632: Battle of Lützen, death of king of Sweden Gustav II Adolf.
1632: Taj Mahal building work started in Agra, India.
1633: Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome for his trial before the Inquisition.
1633– 1639: Japan transforms into “locked country”.
1634: Battle of Nördlingen results in Catholic victory.
1636: Harvard University is founded in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1637: Shimabara Rebellion of Japanese Christians, rōnin and peasants against Edo.
1637: The first opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice.
1637: Qing dynasty attacked Joseon dynasty.
1639: Naval Battle of the Downs – Republic of the United Provinces fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters.
1639: Disagreements between the Farnese and Barberini Pope Urban VIII escalate into the Wars of Castro and last until 1649.
1639– 1651: Wars of the Three Kingdoms, civil wars throughout Scotland, Ireland, and England.
1640– 1668: The Portuguese Restoration War led to the end of the Iberian Union.
1641: The Irish Rebellion.
1641: René Descartes publishes Meditationes de prima philosophia Meditations on First Philosophy.
1642: Beginning of English Civil War, conflict will end in 1649 with the execution of King Charles I, abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of the supremacy of Parliament over the king.
1643: L’incoronazione di Poppea, Monterverdi
1644: The Manchu conquer China ending the Ming dynasty. The subsequent Qing dynasty rules until 1912.
1644– 1674: The Mauritanian Thirty-Year War.
1645– 1669: Ottoman war with Venice. The Ottomans invade Crete and capture Canea.
1647– 1652: The Great Plague of Seville.
1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years’ War and the Eighty Years’ War and marks the ends of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire as major European powers.
1648– 1653: Fronde civil war in France.
1648– 1657: The Khmelnytsky Uprising – a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland.
1648– 1667: The Deluge wars leave Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in ruins.
1648– 1669: The Ottomans capture Crete from the Venetians after the Siege of Candia.
1649: King Charles I is executed for High treason, the first and only English king to be subjected to legal proceedings in a High Court of Justice and put to death.
1649– 1653: The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Major changes in philosophy and science take place, often characterized as the Scientific revolution.
Banknotes reintroduced in Europe.
Tea and become popular in Europe. coffee
Central Banking in France and modern Finance by Scottish economist John Law.
Minarets, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, (Iran), are built. Persia
1604: Supernova SN 1604 is observed in the Milky Way.
1605: Johannes starts investigating Kepler of planets. elliptical orbits
1605: Johann Carolus of Germany publishes the ‘Relation’, the first newspaper.
1608: first appear. Dutch spectacle-maker Refracting Telescopes Hans Lippershey tries to obtain a patent on one, spreading word of the invention.
1610: The Orion Nebula is identified by Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc of France.
1610: and Galileo Galilei Simon Marius observe Jupiter‘s Galilean Moons.
1611: or ‘Authorized Version’ first published. King James Bible
1612: The first flintlock musket likely created for Louis XIII of France by gunsmith Marin . Bourgeois
1614: John Napier introduces the logarithm to simplify calculations.
1616: Niccolò Zucchi describes experiments with a bronze parabolic mirror trying to make a reflecting telescope.
1620: Cornelis Drebbel, funded by James I of England, builds the first ‘ made of wood and greased leather. submarine‘
1623: The first English dictionary, ‘English Dictionarie’ is published by Henry Cockeram, listing difficult words with definitions.
1628: William Harvey publishes and elucidates his earlier discovery of the circulatory system.
1637: Dutch Bible published.
1637: Teatro San Cassiano, the first public opera house, opened in Venice.
1637: Pierre de Fermat formulates his so-called Last Theorem, unsolved until 1995.
1637: Although Chinese were earlier described in the 14th century naval mines , the Huolongjing Tian Gong Kai Wu book of Ming dynasty scholar Song Yingxing describes naval mines wrapped in a lacquer bag and ignited by an ambusher pulling a rip cord on the nearby shore that triggers a steel-wheel flint mechanism.
1642: Blaise Pascal invents the mechanical calculator called . Pascal’s calculator
1642: engraving introduces grey tones to printed images. Mezzotint
1643: Evangelista Torricelli of Italy invents the mercury . barometer
1645: Giacomo Torelli of Venice, Italy invents the first rotating stage.
1651: Giovanni Riccioli renames the lunar maria.
1656: Christiaan Huygens describes the true shape of the rings of Saturn.
1657: Christiaan Huygens develops the first functional based on the learnings of pendulum clock Galileo Galilei.
1659: Christiaan Huygens first to observe surface details of Mars.
1662: Christopher Merret presents first paper on the production of sparkling wine. (Champagne)
1663: James Gregory publishes designs for a reflecting telescope.
1669: The first known operational reflecting telescope is built by . Isaac Newton
1676: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek discovers . Bacteria
1676: First measurement of the . speed of light
1679: Binary system developed by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
1684: Calculus independently developed by both Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Sir Isaac Newton and used to formulate classical mechanics.
1700– 1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires.
1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I.
1701– 1714: The War of the Spanish Succession is fought, involving most of continental Europe. 
1702– 1715: Camisard Rebellion in France.
1703: Saint Petersburg is founded by Peter the Great; it is the Russian capital until 1918.
1703– 1711: The Rákóczi Uprising against the Habsburg Monarchy.
1704: End of Japan’s Genroku period.
1704: First Javanese War of Succession. 
1706– 1713: The War of the Spanish Succession: French troops defeated at the battles of Ramillies and Turin.
1707: The Act of Union is passed, merging the Scottish and English Parliaments, thus establishing the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1708: The Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and English Company Trading to the East Indies merge to form the United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies.
1708– 1709: Famine kills one-third of East Prussia‘s population.
1709: The marks the coldest winter in 500 years. Great Frost of 1709
1710: The world’s first copyright legislation, Britain‘s Statute of Anne, takes effect.
1710– 1711: Ottoman Empire fights Russia in the Russo-Turkish War.
1711– 1715: Tuscarora War between British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora people of North Carolina.
1714: In Amsterdam, invents the Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit mercury-in-glass , which remains the most reliable and accurate thermometer until the electronic era. thermometer
1715: The first Jacobite rising breaks out; the British halt the Jacobite advance at the Battle of Sheriffmuir; Battle of Preston.
1716: Establishment of the along the present-day India- Sikh Confederacy Pakistan border.
1718: The city of is founded by the French in North America. New Orleans
1718– 1730: Tulip period of the Ottoman Empire.
1719: Second . Javanese War of Succession
1720: The South Sea Bubble.
1720– 1721: The Great Plague of Marseille.
1721: The Treaty of Nystad is signed, ending the Great Northern War.
1721: Sack of Shamakhi, massacre of its Shia population by Sunni Lezgins.
1722– 1723: Russo-Persian War.
1722– 1725: Controversy over William Wood‘s halfpence leads to the and begins the Irish economic independence from England movement. Drapier’s Letters
1723: ; Slavery is abolished in Russia Peter the Great converts household slaves into house serfs.
1723– 1730: The “Great Disaster”, an invasion of Kazakh territories by the Dzungars.
1724: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit proposes the Fahrenheit temperature scale.
1727– 1729: . Anglo-Spanish War
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
1709: The first was built by piano Bartolomeo Cristofori
1711: Tuning fork was invented by John Shore
1712: Steam engine invented by Thomas Newcomen
1714: Mercury thermometer by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
1717: was successfully tested by Diving bell Edmond Halley, sustainable to a depth of 55 ft
c. 1730: Octant navigational tool was developed by John Hadley in England, and Thomas Godfrey in America
1733: invented by Flying shuttle John Kay
1736: Europeans encountered – the discovery was made by rubber Charles Marie de La Condamine while on expedition in South America. It was named in 1770 by Joseph Priestley
c. 1740: Modern steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman
1741: Vitus Bering discovers Alaska
1745: Leyden jar invented by Ewald Georg von Kleist was the first electrical capacitor
1752: invented by Lightning rod Benjamin Franklin
1753: The first Clock to be built in the New World (North America) was invented by Benjamin Banneker.
1755: The tallest wooden statue in the world is erected at Bodhisattva Puning Temple, Chengde, China.
1764: Spinning jenny created by James Hargreaves brought on the Industrial Revolution
1765: James Watt enhances Newcomen’s steam engine, allowing new steel technologies
1761: The problem of longitude was finally resolved by the fourth chronometer of John Harrison
1763: Thomas Bayes publishes first version of Bayes’ theorem, paving the way for Bayesian probability
1768– 1779: mapped the boundaries of the Pacific Ocean and discovered many James Cook Pacific Islands
1774: Joseph Priestley discovers “dephlogisticated air”, oxygen
1775: Joseph Priestley first synthesis of “phlogisticated nitrous air”, nitrous oxide, “laughing gas”
1776: First improved steam engines installed by James Watt
1776: invented by Steamboat Claude de Jouffroy
1777: Circular saw invented by Samuel Miller
1779: Photosynthesis was first discovered by Jan Ingenhousz
1781: William Herschel announces discovery of Uranus
1784: invented by Bifocals Benjamin Franklin
1784: Argand lamp invented by Aimé Argand
1785: invented by Power loom Edmund Cartwright
1785: Automatic flour mill invented by Oliver Evans
1786: Threshing machine invented by Andrew Meikle
1787: Jacques Charles discovers Charles’s law
1789: Antoine Lavoisier discovers the law of conservation of mass, the basis for chemistry, and begins modern chemistry
1798: Edward Jenner publishes a treatise about smallpox vaccination
1798: The invented by Lithographic printing process Alois Senefelder
1799: discovered by Rosetta Stone Napoleon‘s troops
Literary and philosophical achievements
1703: by The Love Suicides at Sonezaki Chikamatsu first performed
1704– 1717: translated into French by One Thousand and One Nights Antoine Galland. The work becomes immensely popular throughout Europe.
1704: by A Tale of a Tub Jonathan Swift first published
1712: by The Rape of the Lock Alexander Pope (publication of first version)
1719: by Robinson Crusoe Daniel Defoe
1725: The New Science by Giambattista Vico
1726: by Gulliver’s Travels Jonathan Swift
1728: by The Dunciad Alexander Pope (publication of first version)
1744: becomes one of the first A Little Pretty Pocket-Book books marketed for children
1748: ( Chushingura The Treasury of Loyal Retainers), popular Japanese puppet play, composed
1748: by Clarissa Samuel Richardson
1749: by The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling Henry Fielding
1751: by Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Thomas Gray published
1751– 1785: The French Encyclopédie
1755: by A Dictionary of the English Language Samuel Johnson
1759: by Candide Voltaire
1759: by The Theory of Moral Sentiments Adam Smith
1759– 1767: by Tristram Shandy Laurence Sterne
1762: by Emile: or, On Education Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1762: by The Social Contract, Or Principles of Political Right Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1774: by The Sorrows of Young Werther Goethe first published
1776: ( Ugetsu Monogatari Tales of Moonlight and Rain) by Ueda Akinari
1776: , foundation of the modern theory of economy, was published by The Wealth of Nations Adam Smith
1776– 1789: was published by The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Edward Gibbon
1779: published by Amazing Grace John Newton
1779– 1782: by Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets Samuel Johnson
1781: by Critique of Pure Reason Immanuel Kant (publication of first edition)
1781: by The Robbers Friedrich Schiller first published
1782: by Les Liaisons dangereuses Pierre Choderlos de Laclos
1786: by Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect Robert Burns
1787– 1788: by The Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay
1788: by Critique of Practical Reason Immanuel Kant
1789: by Songs of Innocence William Blake
1789: by The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Olaudah Equiano
1790: by Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow Alexander Radishchev
1790: by Reflections on the Revolution in France Edmund Burke
1791: by Rights of Man Thomas Paine
1792: by A Vindication of the Rights of Woman Mary Wollstonecraft
1794: by Songs of Experience William Blake
1798: by Lyrical Ballads William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge
1798: published by An Essay on the Principle of Population Thomas Malthus
(mid-18th century): (authorship attributed to The Dream of the Red Chamber Cao Xueqin), one of the most famous Chinese novels
1711: , Rinaldo Handel‘s first opera for the London stage, premiered
1721: by Brandenburg Concertos J.S. Bach
1723: , violin concertos by The Four Seasons , composed Antonio Vivaldi
1724: by St John Passion J.S. Bach
1727: composed by St Matthew Passion J.S. Bach
1733: , first opera by Hippolyte et Aricie Jean-Philippe Rameau
1741: for Goldberg Variations harpsichord published by Bach
1742: , oratorio by Messiah Handel premiered in Dublin
1749: by Mass in B minor J.S. Bach assembled in current form
1751: by The Art of Fugue J.S. Bach
1762: , first “reform opera” by Orfeo ed Euridice Gluck, performed in Vienna
1786: , opera by The Marriage of Figaro Mozart
1787: , opera by Don Giovanni Mozart
1788: composed by Jupiter Symphony (Symphony No.41) Mozart
1791: , opera by The Magic Flute Mozart
1791– 1795: London symphonies by Haydn
1798: The Pathétique, piano sonata by Beethoven
1798: , oratorio by The Creation Haydn first performed
The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology.
1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the . 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement. British East India Company
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane (“Crushing”) that depopulated large areas of southern Africa.
1830: Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.
1830: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints is established on 6 April 1830.
1830: Anglo-Russian rivalry over Afghanistan, the Great Game, commences and concludes in 1895.
1830: July Revolution in France.
1830: The Belgian Revolution in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands led to the creation of Belgium.
1830: Greater Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.
1830: November Uprising in Poland against Russia.
1830: End of the Diponegoro war. The whole area of Yogyakarta and Surakarta Manca nagara Dutch seized. 27 September, Klaten Agreement determines a fixed boundary between Surakarta and Yogyakarta and permanently divide the kingdom of Mataram was signed by Sasradiningrat, Pepatih Dalem Surakarta, and Danurejo, Pepatih Dalem Yogyakarta. Mataram is de facto and de jure controlled by the Dutch East Indies.
1831: France invades and occupies Algeria.
1831: Ioannis Kapodistrias, the First Governor of Greece is murdered at Nauplion.
1831: The Belgian constitution is ratified and Leopold I is crowned as first “King of the Belgians”.
1831: Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurs.
1831– 1836: Charles Darwin‘s journey aboard HMS . Beagle
Emigrants leaving Ireland. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone.
1831: November Uprising ends with crushing defeat for Poland in the Battle of Warsaw.
1831– 1833: Egyptian–Ottoman War.
1831: Second phase of Padri War. (to 1838)
1832: The British Parliament passes the Great Reform Act.
1833: Slavery Abolition Act bans slavery throughout the British Empire.
1833– 1876: Carlist Wars in Spain.
1834: The German Customs Union is formed.
1834: Spanish Inquisition officially ends.
1834: Britain amends the Poor Law demanding that any paupers requesting assistance must go to a workhouse.
1834– 1859: Imam Shamil‘s rebellion in Russian-occupied Caucasus.
1835– 1836: The Texas Revolution in Mexico resulted in the short-lived Republic of Texas.
1836: Battle of the Alamo ends with defeat for Texan separatists.
1836: Battle of San Jacinto leads to the capture of General Santa Anna.
1836: Samuel Colt popularizes the revolver and sets up a firearms company to manufacture his invention of the Colt Paterson revolver a six bullets firearm shot one by one without reloading manually.
1836– 1839: War of the Confederation begins between Chile and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, ending with Chilean victory.
1837: Telegraphy patented.
1837: Charles Dickens publishes . Oliver Twist
1837: Death of Alexander Pushkin.
1837– 1838: Rebellions of 1837 in Canada.
1837– 1901: Queen Victoria‘s reign is considered the apex of the British Empire and is referred to as the Victorian era.
1838: By this time, 46,000 Native Americans have been forcibly relocated in the Trail of Tears.
1838– 1840: Civil war in the Federal Republic of Central America led to the foundings of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
1839: Kingdom of Belgium declared.
1839– 1851: Uruguayan Civil War.
1839– 1860: After the First and Second Opium Wars, France, the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia gain many trade and associated concessions from China resulting in the start of the decline of the Qing dynasty.
1839– 1919: Anglo-Afghan Wars lead to stalemate and the establishment of the Durand line.
The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century. 
1860: Giuseppe Garibaldi launches the Expedition of the Thousand.
1860: The Pony Express started.
1861– 1865: American Civil War between the Union and seceding Confederacy.
1861: Russia abolishes serfdom.
1861– 1867: French intervention in Mexico and the creation of the Second Mexican Empire, ruled by Maximilian I of Mexico and his consort Carlota of Mexico.
1861: Death of Prince Albert.
1861: James Clerk Maxwell publishes , formulating the four On Physical Lines of Force Maxwell’s Equations.
1862: The Pony Express ended.
1862: Victor Hugo publishes . Les Misérables
1862: French gain first foothold in Southeast Asia.
1862– 1877: Muslim Rebellion in north-west China.
1863: United States President Abraham Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary on September 22, 1862, warning that in all states still in rebellion (  Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves “then, thenceforward, and forever free.” The  Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country. 
1863: Bahá’u’lláh declares his station as “ He whom God shall make manifest“. This date is celebrated in the Baháʼí Faith as The Festival of Ridván.
1863: Formation of the International Red Cross is followed by the adoption of the First Geneva Convention in 1864.
1863: First section of the London Underground opens.
1863: France annexes Cambodia.
1863: Édouard Manet exhibits his painting , sparking public outrage. The Luncheon on the Grass
1863: Gordon (slave) Gordon, or “Whipped Peter”, was an enslaved African American who escaped from a Louisiana plantation in March 1863.
1863– 1865: Polish uprising against the Russian Empire.
1864: Circassian Genocide. (21 May 1864)
1864– 1866: The Chincha Islands War was an attempt by Spain to regain its South American colonies.
1864– 1870: The Paraguayan War ends Paraguayan ambitions for expansion and destroys much of the Paraguayan population.
1864: June, The first railway track in Indonesia was laid between Semarang and Tanggung, Central Java by the Dutch colonial government. 
1865– 1877: Reconstruction in the United States; Slavery is banned in the United States by the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
1865-9 April 1865: Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia (26,765 troops) to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
1865-14 April 1865: United States President Abraham Lincoln is assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth, while attending a performance at Ford’s Theater, Washington, D.C.. He dies approximately nine hours after being shot on 15 April 1865.
1865: Gregor Mendel formulates his laws of inheritance.
1865: Lewis Carroll publishes Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
1866: Successful transatlantic telegraph cable follows an earlier attempt in 1858.
1866: Austro-Prussian War results in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation and the Austrian-Hungarian Dual Monarchy.
1866– 1868: Famine in Finland.
1866– 1869: After the Meiji Restoration, Japan embarks on a program of rapid modernization.
1867: The United States purchases Alaska from Russia.
1867– 1869: Famine in Sweden.
1867: Canadian Confederation formed.
1867: Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
1867: The Principality of Serbia passes a Constitution which defines its independence from the Ottoman Empire. International recognition followed in 1878.
1867: The Luxembourg Crisis: diplomatic confrontation between France and Prussia on the status of Luxembourg and the towns fortifications are torn down.
1867: The Marquess of Queensberry Rules for boxing are published.
1868: Safety bicycle invented.
1868: The Expatriation Act of 1868 is approved by the U.S. Congress, one of the early blows which would eventually lead to the death of the common law doctrine of perpetual allegiance.
1868: The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is approved.
1868: Cro-Magnon man first identified.
1868: Michael Barrett is the last person to be publicly hanged in England.
1868– 1878: Ten Years’ War between Cuba and Spain.
1868: The Batavian Museum (today National Museum of Indonesia) was officially opened by Dutch East Indies government.
1869: Leo Tolstoy publishes . War and Peace
1869: First Transcontinental Railroad completed in United States on 10 May. – United States
1869: Dmitri Mendeleev created the Periodic table.
1869: The Suez Canal opens linking the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
From 1865–1870 Paraguay lost more than half of its population in the Paraguayan War against Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
1870: Rasmus Malling-Hansen‘s invention the Hansen Writing Ball becomes the first commercially sold typewriter.
1870– 1871: The Franco-Prussian War results in the unifications of Germany and Italy, the collapse of the Second French Empire and the emergence of a New Imperialism.
1870: Official dismantling of the Cultivation System and beginning of a ‘ Liberal Policy‘ of deregulated exploitation of the Netherlands East Indies. 
1870– 1890: Long Depression in Western Europe and North America.
1871– 1878: In Germany, Otto von Bismarck attacks the privileges of the Catholic Church in the (“Culture War”). Kulturkampf
1871– 1872: Famine in Persia is believed to have caused the death of 2 million.
1871– 1914: Second Industrial Revolution.
1871: Royal Albert Hall opens in London.
1871: The Paris Commune briefly rules the French capital.
1871: The feudal system is dismantled in Japan.
1871: Henry Morton Stanley meets Dr. David Livingstone near Lake Tanganyika.
1872: Yellowstone National Park, the first national park, is created.
1872: The first recognised international soccer match, between England and Scotland, is played.
1873: The Panic of 1873 starts the “ Long Depression“.
1873: Maxwell’s published. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism
1873: The samurai class is abolished in Japan.
1873: Blue jeans and barbed wire are invented.
1873: The beginning of the bloody Aceh War for Dutch occupation of the province. 
1874: The Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, and Graveurs, better known as the Impressionists, organize and present their first public group exhibition at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar.
1874: The Home Rule Movement is established in Ireland.
1874: The British East India Company is dissolved.
1874– 1875: First Republic in Spain.
1875: surveys the deepest point in the Earth’s oceans, the HMS Challenger Challenger Deep.
1875– 1900: 26 million Indians perish in India due to famine.
1875: Georges Bizet‘s opera Carmen premiers in Paris.
1876: Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule.
1876: Richard Wagner‘s is first performed in its entirety. Ring Cycle
1876: Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India.
1876: Battle of the Little Bighorn leads to the death of General Custer and victory for the alliance of Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho.
1876– 1879: 13 million Chinese die of famine in northern China.
1876– 1914: The massive expansion in population, territory, industry and wealth in the United States is referred to as the Gilded Age.
1877: Great Railroad Strike in the United States may have been the world’s first nationwide labour strike.
1877: Crazy Horse surrenders and is later killed.
1877: Asaph Hall discovers the moons of Mars.
1877: Thomas Edison invents the phonograph.
1877: On August 17, Henry McCarty (who later becomes Billy the Kid) kills a blacksmith named Francis Cahill who becomes his first murder victim.
1877: The first test cricket match, between England and Australia, is played.
1877– 1878: Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognizes formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous.
1878: First commercial telephone exchange in New Haven, Connecticut.
A barricade in the Paris Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
1879: Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa. – South Africa
1879: Thomas Edison tests his first light bulb.
1879– 1880: Little War against Spanish rule in Cuba leads to rebel defeat.
1879– 1883: Chile battles with Peru and Bolivia over Andean territory in the War of the Pacific.
1879– 1884: Belgium is engulfed in a political crisis, dubbed the First School War, over the role of religion in state education.
1879: 21 April, Kartini was born in Jepara, today the date is commemorated as women’s emancipation day in Indonesia.
1880– 1881: the First Boer War.
1881: Tsar Alexander II is assassinated.
1881: Wave of pogroms begins in the Russian Empire.
1881: Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. Sitting Bull surrenders.
1881: First electrical power plant and grid in Godalming, Britain.
1881: President James A. Garfield is assassinated.
1881– 1882: The Jules Ferry laws are passed in France establishing free, secular education.
1881– 1899: The Mahdist War in Sudan.
1882: The British invasion and subsequent occupation of Egypt.
1883: Krakatoa volcano explosion, one of the largest in modern history.
1883: The quagga is rendered extinct.
1883: Robert Louis Stevenson‘s is published. Treasure Island
1884: First electric car produced by Thomas Parker in Wolverhampton.
1884: Siege of Khartoum.
1884: Germany gains control of Cameroon.
1884: Mark Twain publishes . The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
1884: Hiram Maxim invents the first self-powered Machine gun.
1884– 1885: The Berlin Conference signals the start of the European “ scramble for Africa“. Attending nations also agree to ban trade in slaves.
1884– 1885: The Sino-French War led to the formation of French Indochina.
1885: Louis Pasteur creates the first successful vaccine against rabies for a young boy who had been bitten 14 times by a rabid dog.
1885: Karl Benz produced first car with internal combustion engine.
1885: King Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State as a personal fiefdom.
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (modern Botswana).
1885: Singer begins production of the ‘ Vibrating Shuttle‘. which would become the most popular model of sewing machine.
1885: Rock Springs massacre: White miners rioted, killing at least 28 Chinese immigrant miners.
1886: “ The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde” by Robert Louis Stevenson is published.
1886: Burma is presented to Queen Victoria as a birthday gift.
1886: Karl Benz sells the first commercial automobile.
1886: Construction of the Statue of Liberty; Coca-Cola is developed.
1887: The British Empire takes over Balochistan.
1887: Arthur Conan Doyle publishes his first Sherlock Holmes story, . A Study in Scarlet
1888: Year of the Three Emperors in Germany marks the beginning of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s 30 year reign.
1888: Louis Le Prince records the , the earliest surviving Roundhay Garden Scene film.
1888: Jack the Ripper murders occur in Whitechapel, London.
1888: Slavery banned in Brazil.
1888: Founding of the shipping line (KPM) that supported the unification and development of the colonial economy. Koninklijke Paketvaart-Maatschappij 
1889: The Mayerling Incident: Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and Baroness Mary Vetsera die in a suicide pact.
1889: Eiffel Tower is inaugurated in Paris.
1889: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad establishes the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, a reform sect of Islam.
1889: End of the Brazilian Empire and the beginning of the Brazilian Republic.
1889: Vincent van Gogh paints . The Starry Night
1889: Aspirin patented.
1889: Moulin Rouge opens in Paris.
First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company.
1890: The Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota was the last battle in the American Indian Wars. This event represents the end of the American Old West.
1890: Italy annexes Eritrea.
1890: First use of the electric chair as a method for execution.
1890: Death of Vincent van Gogh.
1890: The cardboard box is invented.
1890: Kaiser Wilhelm II dismisses Germany’s longtime chancellor Otto von Bismarck, thereafter embarking on the foreign policy of Weltpolitik, as opposed to Bismarck’s Realpolitik.
1890s: Bike boom sweeps Europe and America.
1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, founder of the Ahmadiyya movement, claims to be Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi.
1891: 1891 Chilean Civil War.
1891: Wrigley Company is founded in Illinois.
1891: Pope Leo XIII launches the encyclical Rerum Novarum, the first major catholic document on social justice.
1892: Basketball is invented.
1892: The World’s Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago celebrating the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus‘s arrival in the New World.
1892: Fingerprinting is officially adopted for the first time.
1892: Tchaikovsky‘s premières in Nutcracker Suite St Petersburg.
1892: John Froelich develops and constructs the first gasoline/petrol-powered tractor.
1893: US forces overthrow the government of Hawaii.
1893: The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation is formed.
1893: New Zealand becomes the first country to enact women’s suffrage.
1893: The Coremans-de Vriendt law is passed in Belgium, creating legal equality for French and Dutch languages.
1894: First commercial film release by Jean Aimé Le Roy.
1894: First gramophone record.
1894: Karl Elsener invents the Swiss Army knife.
1894: France and the Russian Empire form a military alliance.
1894– 1895: After the First Sino-Japanese War, China cedes Taiwan to Japan and grants Japan a free hand in Korea.
1894– 1906: Dreyfuss Affair in France.
1894: Lombok War The Dutch looted and destroyed the Cakranegara palace of  Mataram. J. L. A. Brandes, a Dutch philologist discovered and secured  Nagarakretagama manuscript in Lombok royal library.
1895: Taiwan is ceded to the Empire of Japan as a result of the First Sino-Japanese war.
1895: Volleyball is invented.
1895: Trial of Oscar Wilde and premiere of his play . The Importance of Being Earnest
1895: French troops capture Antananarivo in Madagascar.
1895: Wilhelm Röntgen identifies x-rays.
1895– 1896: Abyssinia defeats Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War.
1895– 1898: Cuban War for Independence results in Cuban independence from Spain.
1896: Olympic Games revived in Athens.
1896: Philippine Revolution ends declaring Philippines free from Spanish rule.
1896: Ethiopia defeated Italy at the Battle of Adwa.
1896: Klondike Gold Rush in Canada.
1896: Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity; J. J. Thomson identifies the electron, though not by name.
1897: Gojong, or Emperor Gwangmu, proclaims the short-lived Korean Empire: lasts until 1910.
1897: Benin Expedition of 1897 loots and burns Benin.
1897: Greco-Turkish War.
1897: Bram Stoker writes Dracula.
1897: First electric bicycle produced by Hosea Libbey.
1898: The United States gains control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish–American War.
1898: Empress Dowager Cixi of China engineers a coup d’état, marking the end of the Hundred Days’ Reform; the Guangxu Emperor is arrested.
1898: H. G. Wells publishes . The War of the Worlds
1898: Empress Elisabeth of Austria is assassinated by anarchist Luigi Lucheni.
1898– 1900: The Boxer Rebellion in China is suppressed by an Eight-Nation Alliance.
1898– 1902: The Thousand Days’ War in Colombia breaks out between the “ Liberales” and “ Conservadores“, culminating with the loss of Panama in 1903.
1898: General van Heutz becomes chief of staff of Aceh campaign. Wilhelmina becomes queen of the Netherlands. 
1898: Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener defeats Mahdist Sudan in the Battle of Omdurman.
1898– 1900: Zeppelin LZ 1 airship first produced.
1899– 1902: Second Boer War begins.
1899– 1913: Philippine–American War begins.
1899– 1900: Indian famine kills over 1 million people.
22 April: Second Battle of Ypres begins, first widespread use of poison gas.
European Free Trade Association formed.
Year of Africa: Independence of 17 African nations.
17 January: The assassination of Patrice Lumumba begins the Congo Crisis.
22 January: First manned descent to the deepest point on Earth, the Mariana Trench.
25 January: Release date of Disney’s . One Hundred and One Dalmatians
21 March: The Sharpeville Massacre, in which the police opened fire against a protesting crowd at a police station in the South African township of Sharpeville in Transvaal, resulting in 69 deaths and 180 injuries.
21 April: Construction of Brasília, Brazil’s new capital, finished.
1 May: 1960 U-2 incident sparks deterioration in relations between superpowers.
9 May: The birth control pill becomes commercially available.
16 May: Construction of the first laser.
22 May: An
earthquake in Valdivia, Chile of magnitude 9.4 to 9.6, the highest ever recorded, causes 1,000 to 6,000 deaths.
18–25 September: The first edition of the Summer Paralympic Games is hosted in Rome.
30 September: The first episode of airs on ABC. The Flintstones
12 October: Inejiro Asanuma, a Japanese socialist politician, is assassinated during a broadcast on TV.
8 November: The 1960 United States presidential election marks the first televised debates between presidential candidates.
Khrushchev withdraws Soviet cooperation with China, initiating the Sino-Soviet split.
Mau Mau Uprising ends.
The Beatles form in Liverpool.
A 0 series Shinkansen high-speed rail set in Tokyo, May 1967
First high-speed rail introduced in Tokyo.
Mid-year: Summer of Love, in which as many as 100,000 people, mostly young people sporting hippie fashions of dress and behavior, converged in San Francisco’s neighborhood of Haight-Ashbury.
5–10 June: The Six-Day War, a conflict between Israel and Arab states that resulted in Israel occuyping the Gaza Strip, the Sinal Peninsula, the West Bank and the Golan Heights.
6 July: Attempted secession of the Republic of Biafra from Nigeria triggers the Nigerian Civil War.
17 July: Death of John Coltrane, American jazz saxophonist, clarinettist and composer.
8 August: Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) founded.
18 October: Release date of Disney’s . The Jungle Book
26 May: The Beatles release their landmark album . Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
17 December: Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt disappears while swimming at Cheviot Beach, Victoria.
13 January: Samsung Electronics founded in Suwon, South Korea.
20 January: Richard Nixon is inaugurated as President of the United States.
2 March: Concorde 001 flies from the first time, from Toulouse, piloted by André Turcat.
March to September: Sino-Soviet border conflict.
June 28 to July 3: The Stonewall riots in New York City instigate the gay rights movement.
20 July: The first manned mission to the Moon.
8–9 August: The Manson Family Murders – Under Charles Manson‘s orders, his followers, the “Manson Family” cult, enter the home of Hollywood actress Sharon Tate and murder her and four others.
August: The Woodstock festival in Bethel, New York, attracts an audience of more than 400,000.
1 September: Muammar Gaddafi overthrows King Idris of Libya in a Coup d’état and establishes the Libyan Arab Republic.
29 October: Creation of Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ( ARPANET), the earliest incarnation of the Internet.
10 November: premieres its debut episode. Sesame Street
7 March: Michael Jackson and Lionel Richie, USA For Africa released We Are the World.
11 March: Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
15 March: End of military leadership in Brazil.
June: End of 1982 Lebanon War.
13 July: Live Aid.
20 August: Beginning of the Iran–Contra affair, a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration involving the sale of arms to the Khomeini government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
1 September: 73 years after the infamous disaster, the wreck of the is found off the coast of Titanic Newfoundland by a joint French–American expedition led by Jean-Louis Michel of IFREMER and Robert Ballard of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
19 September: An earthquake in Mexico City, magnitude 8.0, kills from 5,000 to 45,000 people.
1 October: Release date of the Macintosh 128K, the first successful mass-market personal computer to feature a graphical user interface, built-in screen, and mouse.
18 October: North American release date of the Nintendo Entertainment System, a rebranding of Nintendo’s Family Computer.
13 November: The Armero tragedy, in which 20,000 people die following the eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz stratovolcano in Tolima, Colombia.
20 November: Windows 1.0, the first Microsoft Windows operating system, released.
First use of DNA fingerprinting.
7 January: Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) dies; his son, Akihito (the Emperor Heisei) becomes Emperor of Japan.
20 January: George H. W. Bush is inaugurated as President of the United States.
2 February: Alfredo Stroessner is overthrown in Paraguay. End of dictatorship.
14 February: Fatwa issued against Salman Rushdie.
15 February: End of the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
24 March: The oil tanker Exxon Valdez spills 10.8 million US gallons of crude oil after striking a reef, causing severe damage to the environment.
April to June: Tiananmen Square Massacre, in which troops armed with assault rifles and accompanied by tanks fired at student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing, resulting in an undisclosed number of deaths (estimated in hundreds to thousands).
21 April: Release date of the Game Boy handheld console in Japan.
3 June: Ruhollah Khomeini dies; Ali Khamenei becomes Supreme Leader of Iran.
1989 Polish legislative election although the elections were not entirely democratic, they led to the formation of a government led by Tadeusz Mazowiecki and a peaceful transition to democracy in Poland and elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe.
1989 Tiananmen Square protests. A crackdown takes place in Beijing on the army’s approach to the square, and the final stand-off in the square is covered live on television.
5 June: An unknown Chinese protestor, “ Tank Man“, stands in front of a column of military tanks on Chang’an Avenue in Beijing, temporarily halting them, an incident which achieves iconic status internationally through images taken by Western photographers.
31 July: Release date of the Game Boy handheld console in North America.
14 August: North American release date of the Sega Genesis, a rebrand of Sega Mega Drive.
25 August: Voyager 2 makes its closest approach to Neptune and its largest moon, Triton.
9 November: Fall of the Berlin Wall; the Revolutions of 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Bloc begin in Europe, which leads to the end of the Cold War.
15 November and 17 December: The first direct Presidential election in Brazil since 1960.
17 November: Release date of Disney’s . The Little Mermaid
1–9 December: A military coup attempt begins in the Philippines against the government of Philippine President Corazon C. Aquino.
17 December: The first episode of premieres on The Simpsons Fox.
20 December: The United States invasion of Panama begins.
24 December: The First Liberian Civil War begins.
25 December: Trial and execution of Nicolae and Elena Ceaușescu in Romania.
Bill Hicks “For The War, Against The Troops”
28 February: The Gulf War ends in US withdrawal and a failed uprising.
23 March: Beginning of the Sierra Leone Civil War.
21 May: Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, Indian Prime Minister.
24–25 May: Operation Solomon, a covert Israeli military operation to airlift Ethiopian Jews to Israel.
12 June: Mount Pinatubo erupts with a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6 and reduces global temperatures.
27 June–7 July: The Ten-Day War in Slovenia begins the Yugoslav Wars.
1 July: President George H. W. Bush nominates the controversial Clarence Thomas for the Supreme Court of the United States to replace Thurgood Marshall, who had announced his retirement.
10 July: Boris Yeltsin becomes the first President of Russia.
22 July: American serial killer Jeffery Dahmer, who murdered 17 people, is arrested.
13 September: The Senate of the Philippines rejects the bilateral treaty with United States which would have extended American use of Subic Bay Naval Base.
24 September: Nirvana releases , its landmark second album. Nevermind
28 September: Death of Miles Davis, American trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.
12 August: North American release date of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, a rebranding of the Super Famicom.
5 October: Linus Torvalds launches the first version of the Linux kernel.
30 October–1 November: Madrid Conference of 1991.
Early November: Tropical Storm Thelma lashes into Eastern Visayas, leaving 8,000 people dead.
24 November: Death of Freddie Mercury, British singer, songwriter, and record producer.
22 November: Release date of Disney’s . Beauty and the Beast
Beginning of the Somali Civil War.
1991 Sino-Soviet Border Agreement.
1 January: Velvet Divorce between Czech Republic and Slovakia.
20 January: Bill Clinton is inaugurated as President of the United States.
26 February: 1993 World Trade Center bombing.
February to April: The Waco siege, the law enforcement siege of the compound that belonged to the Seventh-day Adventist religious sect Branch Davidians near Waco, Texas, carried out by the U.S. federal government, Texas state law enforcement, and the U.S. military, which results in a gunfight, a fire at the compound and 86 deaths.
11 June: Release date of Steven Spielberg‘s . Jurassic Park
24 May: Independence of Eritrea.
28 June: Two UPLB students Eileen Sarmenta and Allan Gomez were abducted and killed by the men of Calauan, Laguna Mayor Antonio Sanchez in the Philippines.
27 July: Release date of Windows NT 3.1.
13 September: Oslo accords end First Intifada between Israel and Palestine.
1 November: The Maastricht Treaty founds the European Union.
2 December: Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar is gunned down by police.
11 December: The Highland Towers collapse in Selangor, Malaysia, leaving 48 dead.
1993 child sexual abuse accusations against Michael Jackson.
17 January: A 6.9 M w Great Hanshin earthquake strikes the southern Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan with a maximum Shindo of VII, leaving 5,502–6,434 people dead, and 251,301–310,000 displaced.
20 March: The Tokyo subway sarin attack, an act of domestic terrorism perpetrated by members of the doomsday cult movement Aum Shinrikyo (now Aleph), in which they released sarin, an extremely toxic synthetic compound, in five coordinate attacks, resulting in 13 deaths and 6,252 injuries.
31 March: Murder of Selena.
7 April: Release date of Disney’s . Pocahontas
19 April: American terrorist Timothy McVeigh bombs the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City.
29 June: The Sampoong Department Store collapse, a structural failure in a department store in Seoul, South Korea, kills 502 people and injures other 1,445.
11–22 July: The Srebrenica massacre of over 8,000 Bosniak Muslim men and boys.
21 July: The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis begins.
August to September: NATO bombing raids in Bosnia end the Bosnian War.
24 August: Release date of Windows 95.
9 September: Release date of the PlayStation in North America.
28 September: Oslo II Accord.
3 October: O. J. Simpson is found not guilty of double murder for the deaths of former wife Nicole Simpson and Ronald Goldman in 1994.
October to November: Typhoon Angela leaves the Philippines and Vietnam devastated, with 882 deaths and US$315 million in damage.
4 November: Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Prime Minister and Defence Minister, by Yigal Amir, an Israeli right-wing extremist.
22 November: Premiere of , the first computer-animated feature film and the first Pixar Animation Studios film. Toy Story
14 December: The signing of the Dayton Accords put an end to the three-and-a-half-year-long Bosnian War.
The North Korean famine begins.
January to August: The Albanian Civil War (Lottery Uprising), sparked by pyramid sch failures, in which the government was toppled, with new parliamentary elections, and more than 2,000 people killed.
4 February: 1997 Israeli helicopter disaster, when two Israeli Air Force transport helicopters ferrying Israeli soldiers into Israel’s security zone in southern Lebanon collided in mid-air, killing all 73 Israeli military personnel on board.
March: 39 Heaven’s Gate cultists commit mass suicide at their compound.
9 March: Murder of Biggie Smalls, American hip-hop artist.
13 March: Island of Peace massacre, a mass murder attack that occurred at the Island of Peace on the Israeli-Jordanian border, in which 7 people were killed and 6 injured.
2 May: Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
17 May: Kabila ousts Mobutu; Zaire becomes the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
21 May: Radiohead release . OK Computer
25 June: J. K. Rowling publishes . Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone
27 June : Release date of Disney’s . Hercules
1 July: Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from UK to China.
2 July: The Bank of Thailand floats the baht, triggering the Asian financial crisis.
15 July: Fashion designer, Gianni Versace is murdered by Andrew Cunanan.
2 August: The First Liberian Civil War ends.
31 August: Diana, Princess of Wales is killed in a car accident in Paris.
19 December: Release date of . Titanic
Sound barrier broken on land.