[ Art ]

of Observation

There was never a time when humans didn’t look up and wonder about what they saw in the sky.  

Blue Oyster Cult
Secret Treaties
((( song )))

Illus. b/  Vies des Savants Illustres (1877)

In the Beginning, God Created the Heavens and the Earth.

Apollo 8
Shine On You Crazy Diamond
Pink Floyd
Welcome To The Machine
((( sound )))

Photograph b/ Bill Anders (NASA)

Earthrise” (((video))) 

And God said let there be light, and then there was light.”

“In The Skies”
Peter Green
In The Skies
 ((( song )))

Sounds Of Earth

Voyager — Carl Sagan’s Cosmic Message In A Bottle.

The Art of Observation


Space Race (1961)
Space Race Alt. (1961)
Moon Shot (1969)
• Save Pluto
Launch Complex #39 (A/B)

28° 34′ 24.4884” N  80° 39′ 3.8520” W

“Sacred Ground”
Living Colour
Paris, France
 ((( Live )))


Contact — The Hope to Discover Extraterrestrial Life, is of what Carl Sagan Always Dreamed.

Carl Sagan, pressed six-hours of recorded sounds onto two vinyl (LP) discs and placed them into a solid gold case.

Etched into the surface were instructions to build a turntable, in the hopeful case that it might reach an extraterrestrial being intelligent enough to want to here his message.


“Cosmik Debris”
Frank Zappa
Apostrophe (‘)
((( sound )))

Frank Zappa
Congressional Testimony

Religion v. Art  Frank Zappa at PMRC Senate Hearing on Rock Lyrics warning vs. Tipper Gore.

“Inca Roads”
Frank Zappa
One Size Fits All
((( sound )))

— Triangles, Pyramids, Prisms: The Rule of Thirds

Great Pyramid Of Giza

Armand Sabal-lecco
Positive Army
((( sound )))

 — Egyptian Sun Worship



Creation Sistine Chapel Ceiling what was thought to be Michelangelo’s unique technique of using a dark varnish to create a more somber tone to his frescos, turned out to be nothing more than artistic and academic speculation. When the ceiling was professionally analyzed and then carefully cleaned and restored.

Renaissance Man
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci

(Italian) April 1452 – 2 May 1519
Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, paleontology, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time(despite perhaps only 15 of da Vinci’s paintings having survived).

“I’m A Man”
The Spencer Davis Group
((( sound )))

Leonardo Da Vinci

Vitruvian Man


Man Ray

I Am Woman
Helen Reddy (1972)
((( sound )))

Leonardo da Vinci

Mona Lisa
Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, in Vinci, in the region of FlorenceItaly, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Italian painter Andrea del Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan, and he later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice. He spent his last three years in France, where he died in 1519.
Leonardo is renowned primarily as a painter. The Mona Lisa is the most famous of his works and the most popular portrait ever made. The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time and his Vitruvian Man drawing is regarded as a cultural icon as well. Salvator Mundi was sold for a world record $450.3 million at a Christie’s auction in New York, 15 November 2017, the highest price ever paid for a work of art. Leonardo’s paintings and preparatory drawings—together with his notebooks, which contain sketches, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting—compose a contribution to later generations of artists rivaled only by that of his contemporary Michelangelo.

Mary Magdaline
The Way Hollywood Sees It.

Leonardo da Vinci

The Da Vinci Code (2006) is a big-budget, Hollywood, murder-mystery, thriller, in which it was speculated that the figure sitting to Jesus’ right in Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper (1490s) is Mary Magdaline, Jesus’ wife, rather than another another apostle. The outline of the two figures makes the letter “M,” and is thought to stand “Mary” and “Magdaline.”

Marilyn Monroe
The Centerfold Next Door.
John Lennon / Yoko Ono
Double Fantasy
((( song )))

Marilyn Monroe

The original “blonde bombshell,” Marilyn Monroe became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 1950s and early 1960s, as well as an emblem of the era’s sexual revolution. She was a top-billed actress for a decade, and her films grossed $200 million (equivalent to $2 billion in 2021) by the time of her death in 1962. Memory of Marilyn Monroe is eternal, and she remains a pop icon today. The American Film Institute ranks her sixth on their list of the greatest female screen legends from the Golden Age of Hollywood.

Renaissance Man



Michelangelo  (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564)

Always working for The Man: Starting in 1505, Michelangelo worked for nine consecutive Catholic pontiffs, Julius II to Pius IV.

Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered by many the greatest artist of his lifetime, and by some the greatest artist of all time, his artistic versatility was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival, the fellow Florentine and client of the MediciLeonardo da Vinci.
A number of Michelangelo’s works of painting, sculpture and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in these fields was prodigious; given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches and reminiscences, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. He sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty. Despite holding a low opinion of painting, he also created two of the most influential frescoes in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome, and The Last Judgment on its altar wall. His design of the Laurentian Library pioneered Mannerist architecture. At the age of 74, he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter’s Basilica. He transformed the plan so that the western end was finished to his design, as was the dome, with some modification, after his death.


Curved Lines and a Free Spirit.



Parallel Lines, Primary Colors, and Right Angles.



Positive & Negative Space.



Man Ray
(Almost) Back To Reality.


Man Ray

Miles Davis
In The Beginning, Miles Created Bitches Brew.



“Peace before the Hell of the West.”

— vg.


— Jetsons


Galileo Galilei
Father of Observational Astronomy
(February 15, 1564 – January 8, 1642)
1610 Galileo Galilei: First to use a telescope to observe the night sky.

1976 — Jack Horkheimer Star Gazer (video)
Miami PBS Television. 
Galileo spacecraft   (Jupiter)

“Sacred Ground”

28.573469 -80.651070
The Last Stepping Stones To The Moon (Alice)
The Power Of The Sun



Pink Floyd
Dark Side Of The Moon (1973)
Isaac Newton (Optiks)


— Pink Floyd
Dark Side Of The Moon


1985Carl Sagan


— Galileo

MOON GLOSSARY: Full Half Crescent (New Orleans) New Harvest Orange Red Yellow Blue Moonshine Moonrise (Ansel Adams) Moon Glow Moon Rise Moon Struck Moonlight Honeymoon Longitude Lunar Day Lunar Rays Lunar Interval Moon Beam Moon Unit (Frank Zappa)

Isaac Newton
1642 – 1720
Science vs. Religion: This Means War

Scientific Revolution
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1687
Theory of Relativity
Laws of Planetary Motion
The Moon
Tidal Shift — In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton explained that ocean tides result from the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the oceans of the earth (Sumich, J.L., 1996). … Tidal generating forces vary inversely as the cube of the distance from the tide generating object.
Reflecting Telescope (first practical)
Optiks (1704)

Galileo Galilei
15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642
Lure Of The Moon

1610 Galileo Galilei: First to use a telescope to observe the night sky.

1976 — Jack Horkheimer Star Gazer (video)
Miami PBS Television. 
Galileo spacecraft   (Jupiter)
Complex 39 (Pads A and B)
The Last Stepping Stones To The Moon (Alice)
The Power Of The Sun


— Galileo

MOON GLOSSARY: Full Half Crescent (New Orleans) New Harvest Orange Red Yellow Blue Moonshine Moonrise (Ansel Adams) Moon Glow Moon Rise Moon Struck Moonlight Honeymoon Longitude Lunar Day Lunar Rays Lunar Interval

Venice, Italy

Venetian Glass
Dale Chihuly: Over Venice (video)

Jupiter Moons
Phases Of Venus 

Republic Of Venice

Great Pyramid Of Giza

— Triangles, Pyramids, Prisms: The Rule of Thirds

 — Egyptian Sun Worship

The King & Queen
King Akhenaton (left) with his wife, Queen Nefertiti, and three of their daughters under the rays of the sun god Aton, altar relief, mid-14th century bce; in the State Museums at Berlin.


— Egypt / Ra

King Tutankhanun

The Nile River
The Mummy
Lawrence Of Arabia
Flight Of The Phoenix
Erwin Rommel
Indiana Jones
Fort Lauderdale Museum of Art
King Tutankhanun — “The Boy King”
& Queen
Cleopatra — “Famous In Her Father”
“The Father-Loving Goddess”
Lover of Julius Caesar Lover
Wife of Mark Antony.
Cleopatra became queen upon the death of her father
Ptolemy XII, (51 BC)


Cleopatra Antoine Bourlard (1859)


Cleopatra ruled successively with her two brothers 

Ptolemy XIII (51–47)

Ptolemy XIV (47–44) and her son 

Ptolemy XV Caesar (44–30)

After the Roman armies of Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated their combined forces, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and Egypt fell under Roman domination.
Cleopatra actively influenced Roman politics at a crucial period, and she came to represent, as did no other woman of antiquity, the prototype of the romantic femme fatale. (Mata Hari, Josephine Baker, WWII Paris Nazis, Storyville, New Orleans)


Woman Prays to The Sun ( Egyptian Wall Carvomg)




Egyptian Mythology

Nun, the embodiment of the primordial waters, lifts the barque of the sun god Ra into the sky at the moment of creation.


— Egypt Sun Ruins

Caption here for ruins here


Sun Worship

Desert Sand
Earth Wind & Fire
GLASS — Melted Sand
Water — Polished Glass
Reflection — Mirror, Mirror
Refraction — Prism


The Lens
NY(TIMES) — Photography Blog / (Photo) Journalism
Light bending 
Thomas A. Edison — [Light Bulb]
Ideas / Imagination
Figment / Filament
Moving Pictures
The Lens — NYT (Times) Photography Blog

Seeing The Future




Galileo / Hubble (NASA)
“Stairway To Heaven” — Led Zeppelin
“Stairway To The Stars” — Blue Oyster Cult
“Starry Starry Night” — Don McLean

NASA — [1959]
The Original 7
Alan Shepard
John Glenn
Neil Armstrong Rendezvous
Ed White Space Walk
Apollo 1
False Start/Tragedy At Go
Apollo 8
Christmas Eve 1968 / Genesis
EARTHRISE: A Revelation

— Bill Anders

“Dark Side Of The Moon”
Pink Floyd



2806 Shepard Drive

The Golden Record, Carl Sagan’s five-hour compilation, called The Sounds of Planet Earth. Carl Sagan’s “Message” In A Cosmic Bottle.

Back To Earth.

Science vs. Religion, Religion vs. Art, Religion vs. Everything.

1977 — voyager



Queen Isabella of Portugal 


[1492] —
Stars In The Night

New World Discovery
Not India
Native Lands — Will Calhoun 
Planet Earth
Lure of the Moon

Jules Verne
“From the Earth to the Moon”

“Around the World In 80 Days”

“20,000 Leagues Under The Sea”

“Journey to The Center of The Earth”


Isaac Newton
Scientific Revolution
Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 1687
Theory of Relativity
Laws of Planetary Motion
The Moon
Tidal Shift
Reflecting Telescope (first practical)
Optiks 1704




— Sir Issacc Newton

0000 — Caption 14pt Verdana

Issac Newton
“A” is for Apple



2806 Shepard Drive

1670 — Celestial map by the Dutch cartographer Frederik de Wit.


Space Exploration [TIMELINE] — Notable achievements and first accomplishments or major events in humanity’s exploration of outer space.

1813 — First exposition of the rocket equationbased on Issac Newton’s third law of motion: Treatise on the Motion of Rockets.

1840 — First “clear” [IN FOCUS] telescopic photograph of another world: TheMoon.
(United States) John William Draper

1845 — First proper observation of other galaxies which are termed “whirlpool nebulae.” (UK) William Parsons


2806 Shepard Drive 


Jules Verne

Imagine The Moon

1861A Journey Through Space makes first proposal of using rockets for space flight. William Leitch (UK)

1895 — First proposal of a space elevator. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (Russia)



1903Inspired by the writings of Jules Verne first serious work published that showed physical space exploration was theoretically possible:
The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices(Russia) Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

1914 — Goddard files for and is subsequently awarded U.S. patents on multistage and liquid-fueled rockets
(USA) Robert H. Goddard

1917 — First observation of an extrasolar planet (exoplanet) round Van Maanen 2 although it was not recognized as such, at the time.
(Netherlands) Adriaan van Maanen

1919 — Goddard’s widely influential paper “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes” discussed solid- and liquid-fueled rocketry. (USA) Robert H. Goddard

1923 (Dec. 15) — “By Rocket into Planetary Space” self-published after its rejection as a doctoral thesis.GermanyHermann Oberth

1924 — Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel founded USSR. 
Members include Konstantin TsiolkovskyFriedrich ZanderYuri Kondratyuk

1926 (March 16) — Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocketd. (USA) Robert H. Goddard

1927 — Verein für Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel) formed; it includes many top European rocket scientists. Germany

1927The Conquest of Interplanetary Space discusses rocket mechanics and orbital effects including the gravitational slingshot.USSR Yuri Kondratyuk

1928 — “The Problem of Space Travel / The Rocket Motor” discusses space travel and its potential uses for scientific experiments.(Germany)Herman Potočnik

1928 (June 11) — Lippisch Ente, first successful rocket-powered full-size aircraft. Alexander Lippisch (designer), Fritz Stamer (pilot).

First Flight

1944 (June 20) — V-2 Rocket  — First artificial object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight in history.
(Germany) Wehrmacht

1945 — Article in Wireless World, “Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?” makes first discussion of geostationary satellites as a means of communication.
(UK) Arthur C. Clarke

1946 — (Oct. 20) — First space research flight (cosmic radiation experiments)
United States captured, and improved a V-2 rocket.

1946 — First pictures of Earth from 105 km (65 mi)
(United States) V-2

1947 (Feb.20) — First Animals In Space (fruit flies)
(United States) V-2

1949 (Feb.24) — WAC Corporal missile mounted onto a V-2 rocket,
The first two-stage liquid-fueled rocket
Sets a record altitude of 244 miles (392.68 kilometers).

(United States) Bumper-5

That’s Fast

1956 (Sept.20) — The Jupiter-C (inaugural) is the first rocket to pass the Thermopause and enter the Exosphere.
At 682 miles (1,097.57 km) altitude and 3,335 miles range, the 3-stage Jupiter-C breaks both records and achieves MACH 18 velocity. (United States)

After WWII, Russia and America split the Nazi Rocket Scientists between themselves, and the race to the moon had come down to two, and the accelerated pace, thrilling.

1957 (Aug. 21) — First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
(Russia) R- Semyorka / SS-6 Sapwood

Sputnik 1
1957 — First artificial satellite
First signals from space.

Sputnik 2
1957 — First mammal in orbit, the dog Laika.

Explorer 1
1958 (Jan. 31) — Confirmed existence of the Van Allen radiation belt

Luna 1
1959 (Jan.4) — First rocket to reach Earth escape velocity;
attempt to impact the Moon’s surface;
missed by 5,995 kilometers (3,237 nmi)
First artificial object in heliocentric orbit
First detection of solar wind.

Explorer 6
1959 (Aug.7) — First photograph of Earth from orbit.(USA)

Luna 2

1959 (Sept.13) — First impact into the Moon
First delivery of national pennants to a celestial body.(USSR)

Luna 3

1959  (Oct.4) — First photographs of another world from space:
the far side of the Moon


2806 Shepard Drive


Pioneer 5

1960 (March) — First Solar probe


Sputnik 5

1960 (Aug.19) — First Plants and Animals to return alive from Earth orbit


1960 (Oct.10) — First attempt to probe Mars fails



1961 (Jan.31) — rst Hominidae in space, first tasks performed in space; Ham (chimpanzee)

Venera 1

Vostok 1

Freedom 7

Venera 1

Vostok 2


Ranger 4

Vostok 3Vostok 4

Ferdinand 1

Mars 1

Mariner 2

Mariner 2

X-15 Flight 90

Voskhod 1

Voskhod 2

Gemini 3

Mariner 4

Mariner 4

Gemini 6A/Gemini 7

Luna 9

Venera 3

Gemini 8/Agena target vehicle

Luna 10

Lunar Orbiter 1

Cosmos 186/Cosmos 188

Zond 5

Monterey Pop — San Francisco, California (1967)

OAO-2 — December 7, 1968



Apollo 8

— December 21, 1968


Dark Side Of The Moon


— December 24, 1968

“And God Created The Heavens and The Earth.”



Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5

Venera 5


•  Mission To The Moon (National Geographic)

Race To The Moon (Video)



“Ball Of Confusion”
The Temptations (Motown)




1969 w/ “Ball Of Confusion”
Rage, Violence, and Hope … The World had never been less certain.

MAY 5, 1961 (Alan Shepard/First American In Space)

Apollo 11

“One Small Step for Man, One Giant Leap for Mankind”
— Neil Armstrong as he stepped onto the Moon.

A short documentary, including the launch, the landing, and the celebration of Apollo 11, and Neil Armstrong becoming the first man to leave a footprint on the moon.

Fly Like An Eagle
b/ Steve Miller (1976)

Robert Rauschenberg was an influential ’60sPop Artist who often used news clippings and photographs in his collage-style prints.

July 21, 1969 — The Day Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon, and answered one of Earth’s oldest mysteries. Since the first man looked up and saw stars twinkling in the sky, all mankind has imagined how it would feel … The Day Neil Armstrong touched another heavenly body, the body with our complete and timeless attention. THE MOON. 

What A Day — The Day Neil Armstrong stepped onto the moon, legendary (CBS) newsman, Charles Kuralt sent members of his team of journalists around the United States, to document everyday American life, on that most extraordinary day. After the report was written, edited, and produced, it was stored on a shelf for the next 25 years. Its airing in 1994, was the opening of a time capsule, Kuralt’s intention was to let the photography and reporting mature (without manipulation) and stand as a most accurate document of time.



Luna 16

Lunokhod 1

Uhuru (satellite)

Venera 7

Salyut 1

Orion 1

Mariner 9

Mars 2

Mars 3

Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10


Pioneer 10



Mariner 10 — February 5

Venus Fly-By

Venusian Summer

Mariner 10 — March 29

Mercury Fly-By

Nuclear Submarine
Port Canaveral


Back To The Future
Inaugural Shuttle
California Landing
747 Piggyback


“Major Malfunction”
Keith Leblanc



Astronomical Timeline

By Stephen P. Maran

Astronomy For Dummies Cheat Sheet

The study of astronomy is vast and encompasses a huge amount of information. This chart represents important events in astronomy, like discoveries and inventions that have impacted astronomy through the ages:


in the Milky Way
The Sun orbits the center of the Milky Way, and it is presently moving in the direction of the constellation of Cygnus. A simple model of the motion of a star in the galaxy gives the galactic coordinates XY, and Z as:


{\displaystyle X(t)=X(0)+{\frac {U(0)}{\kappa }}\sin(\kappa t)+{\frac {V(0)}{2B}}(1-\cos(\kappa t))}
{\displaystyle Y(t)=Y(0)+2A\left(X(0)+{\frac {V(0)}{2B}}\right)t-{\frac {\Omega _{0}}{B\kappa }}V(0)\sin(\kappa t)+{\frac {2\Omega _{0}}{\kappa ^{2}}}U(0)(1-\cos(\kappa t))}
{\displaystyle Z(t)={\frac {W(0)}{\nu }}\sin(\nu t)+Z(0)\cos(\nu t)}

where UV, and W are the respective velocities with respect to the local standard of restA and B are the Oort constants{\displaystyle \Omega _{0}=A-B} is the angular velocity of galactic rotation for the local standard of rest, {\displaystyle \kappa ={\sqrt {-4\Omega _{0}B}}} is the “epicyclic frequency”, and ν is the vertical oscillation frequency.[146] For the sun, the present values of UV, and W are estimated as {\displaystyle (U(0),V(0),W(0))=(10.00,5.25,7.17)} km/s, and estimates for the other constants are A = 15.5 km/s/kpcB = −12.2 km/s/kpc, κ = 37 km/s/kpc, and ν=74 km/s/kpc. We take X(0) and Y(0) to be zero and Z(0) is estimated to be 17 parsecs. This model implies that the Sun circulates around a point that is itself going around the galaxy. The period of the Sun’s circulation around the point is {\displaystyle 2\pi /\kappa }. which, using the equivalence that a parsec equals 1 km/s times 0.978 million years, comes to 166 million years, shorter than the time it takes for the point to go around the galaxy. In the (X, Y) coordinates, the Sun describes an ellipse around the point, whose length in the Y direction is

{\displaystyle 2\times {\sqrt {\left({\frac {2\Omega _{0}}{\kappa ^{2}}}U(0)\right)^{2}+\left({\frac {\Omega _{0}}{B\kappa }}V(0)\right)^{2}}}=1035{\text{ parsec}}.}

and whose width in the X direction is

{\displaystyle 2\times {\sqrt {\left({\frac {U(0)}{\kappa }}\right)^{2}+\left({\frac {V(0)}
{2B}}\right)^{2}}}=691{\text{ parsec}}}

The ratio of length to width of this ellipse, the same for all stars in our neighborhood, is {\displaystyle 2\Omega /\kappa \approx 1.50.} The moving point is presently at

{\displaystyle X={\frac {V(0)}{2B}}=-215{\text{ parsec}}}
{\displaystyle Y={\frac {2\Omega _{0}}{\kappa ^{2}}}U(0)=405{\text{ parsec}}.}

The oscillation in the Z direction takes the Sun

{\displaystyle {\sqrt {\left({\frac {W(0)}{\nu }}\right)^{2}+Z(0)^{2}}}=98{\text{ parsec}}}

2000 B.C. According to legend, two Chinese astronomers are executed for not predicting an eclipse and for being drunk as it happened.

129 B.C. Hipparchos completes the first catalog of the stars.

150 A.D.  Ptolemy publishes his theory of the Earth-centered universe.

970 A.D. al-Sufi prepares catalog of over 1,000 stars.

1420 Ulugh-Beg, prince of Turkestan, builds a great observatory and prepares tables of planet and star data.

1543 While on his deathbed, Copernicus publishes his theory that planets orbit around the Sun.

1609 Galileo discovers the moons of Jupiter, craters on Earth’s Moon, the turning of the Sun, and the presence of innumerable stars in the Milky Way with a telescope that he built.

1666 Isaac Newton begins his work on the theory of universal gravitation.

1705 Edmond Halley predicts that a great comet will return in 1758.

1758 On Christmas, farmer/and amateur astronomer Johann Palitzch discovers the return of Halley’s Comet.

1781 William Herschel discovers Uranus.

1791 Benjamin Banneker, the first African-American scientist, begins star observations needed for the geographical survey to establish the future capital city of the United States, Washington, D.C.

1833 Abraham Lincoln and thousands of others see an enormous meteor shower over North America on November 12th and 13th.

1842 Christian Doppler discovers the principle by which sound or light shifts in frequency and wavelength due to the motion of its source with respect to the observer.

1846 Johann Galle is the first person to spot Neptune.

1910 Earth passes through the tail of Halley’s Comet.

1916 Albert Einstein proposes the General Theory of Relativity, which explains the nature of gravity and predicts how the path taken by light is bent when it passes near a massive object such as the Sun.

1923 Edwin Hubble proves that other galaxies lie beyond the Milky Way.

1930 Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto.

1931 Karl Jansky discovers radio waves from space.

1939 Hans Bethe explains the energy source of the Sun and other stars.

1940 Grote Reber reports the first radio telescope survey of the sky.

1957 Geoffrey Burbidge, E. Margaret Burbidge, William Fowler, and Fred Hoyle explain how elements form in stars.

1963 Maarten Schmidt discovers that quasars are located at immense distances from the Milky Way and are thus brighter than most other objects in the universe.

1996–1998 Reinhard Genzel (Germany) and Andrea Ghez (United States) and their coworkers find conclusive evidence for a supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way.

2003–2004 The Hubble Space Telescope makes repeated images of a region of the sky that, combined together, make up the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, the deepest picture of the universe ever made.

2015 The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory reports the detection of gravitational waves from the merger of two black holes about 1.3 billion light-years from Earth.